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A weak chemical bond that forms when hydrogen atoms that are covalently bonded to one atom are attracted to another atom on another molecule.
A property of water that results from the cohesion of water molecules at the surface of a body of water and creates a sort of skin on the water's surface.
A property of water that occurs when adhesion of water molecules to a surface is stronger than cohesion between the molecules.
The number indicating the strength of acids and bases on a scale of 0 to 14, where 7 is neutral, a value below 7 is acidic, and a value above 7 is basic (alkaline).
A reaction that occurs when atoms separate from molecules or recombine with other molecules.
A compound that does not contain the element carbon or contains carbon bound to elements other than hydrogen.
A long chain of nitrogen-containing organic molecules known as amino acids, critical to living organisms for structural support, energy storage, internal transport, and defense against foreign substances.
Organic compounds found in all living cells, which form in long chains to make DNA and RNA.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
A nucleic acid, the genetic material that contains the code for reproducing the components of the next generation, and which organisms pass on to their offspring.
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
A nucleic acid that translates the code stored in DNA and allows for the synthesis of proteins.
A highly organized living entity that consists of the four types of macromolecules and other substances in a watery solution, surrounded by a membrane.
A form of energy emitted by the Sun that includes, but is not limited to, visible light, ultraviolet light, and infrared energy.
first law of thermodynamics
A law of nature stating that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
second law of thermodynamics
The law stating that when energy is transformed, the quantity of energy remains the same, but its ability to do work diminishes.
The ratio of the amount of work done to the total amount of energy introduced to the system.
An analysis to determine inputs, outputs, and changes in a system under various conditions.
negative feedback loop
A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.
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