Psychology Ch 6 + 7 test

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Terms in this set (...)

STIMULUS
SOMETHING THAT PRODUCES A REACTION
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
A SIMPLE FORM OF LEARNING IN WHICH ONE STIMULUS ELICITS THE RESPONSE USUALLY ELICITED BY ANOTHER STIMULUS
UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
A STIMULUS THAT CAUSES A RESPONSE THAT IS AUTOMATIC, NOT LEARNED.
UNCONDITIONED RESPONSE
AN AUTOMATIC RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS
CONDITIONED STIMULUS
A STIMULUS THAT CAUSES A RESPONSE THAT IS LEARNED
CONDITIONED RESPONSE
A LEARNED RESPONSE TO A STIMULUS THAT WAS PREVIOUSLY NEUTRAL
EXTINCTION
OCCURS WHEN THE CONDITIONED STIMULUS IS DISCONNECTED FROM THE UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS
GENERALIZATION
OCCURS WHEN PEOPLE RESPOND IN THE SAME WAY TO SIMILAR STIMULI
DESCRIMINATION
THE ACT OF RESPONDING DIFFERENTLY TO STIMULI THAT ARE NOT SIMILAR
FLOODING
A METHOD FOR REDUCING FEARS IN WHICH A PERSON IS CONTINUALLY EXPOSED TO THE HARMLESS STIMULUS UNTIL FEAR RESPONSES ARE EXTINGUISHED
SYSTEMATIC DESENSITIZATION
A GRADUAL METHOD OF REDUCING FEARS IN WHICH PEOPLE ARE TAUGHT RELAXATION TECHNIQUES
COUNTERCONDITIONING
A METHOD OF REDUCING FEARS BY REPEATEDLY PAIRING A PLEASANT STIMULUS WITH A FEARFUL ONE
OPERANT CONDITIONING
A FORM OF LEARNING BASED ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF ACTIONS
REINFORCEMENT
THE PROCESS BY WHICH A STIMULUS INCREASES THE CHANCES THAT THE PRECEDING BEHAVIOR WILL OCCUR AGAIN
POSITIVE REINFORCER
REINFORCERS THAT INCREASE THE FREQUENCY OF THE BEHAVIOR WHEN THEY ARE APPLIED
NEGATIVE REINFORCER
REINFORCERS THAT INCREASE THE FREQUENCY OF THE BEHAVIOR WHEN THEY ARE REMOVED
PUNISHMENT
UNWANTED EVENTS THAT DECREASE THE FREQUENCY OF THE BEHAVIOR WHEN APPLIED
CONTINUOUS REINFORCEMENT
TYPE OF REINFORCEMENT IN WHICH A BEHAVIOR IS REINFORCED EVERY TIME THE BEHAVIOR OCCURS
PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT
TYPE OF REINFORCEMENT IN WHICH A BEHAVIOR IS NOT REINFORCED EVERY SINGLE TIME IT OCCURS
FIXED-INTERVAL SCHEDULE
TYPE OF SCHEDULE IN WHICH A FIXED AMOUNT OF TIME ELAPSES BEWTWEEN REINFORCEMENTS
VARIABLE-INTERVAL SCHEDULE
TYPE OF SCHEDULE IN WHICH VARYING AMOUNTS OF TIME GO BY BETWEEN REINFORCEMENTS
FIXED-RATIO SCHEDULE
TYPE OF SCHEDULE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENTIS PROVIDED AFTER A FIXED NUMBER OF CORRECT RESPONSES HAVE BEEN MADE
VARIABLE-RATIO SCHEDULE
TYPE OF SCHEDULE IN WHICH REINFORCEMENT IS PROVIDED AFTER A VARIBLE NUMBER OF CORRECT RESPONSES HAVE BEEN MADE
LATENT LEARNING
LEARNING THAT REMAINS HIDDEN UNTIL IT IS NEEDED
OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING
LEARNING THAT IS ACQUIRED THROUGH OBSERVING AND IMITATING OTHERS
REVIEW
THE FINAL STEP IN THE PQ4R METHOD...
EPISODIC MEMORY
MEMORY OF A SPECIFIC EVENT
FLASHBULB MEMORY
EXTREMELY DETAILED MEMORY SCENES
SEMANTIC MEMORY
GENERAL KNOWLEGE THAT PEOPLE REMEMBER
IMPLICIT MEMORY
SKILLS SKILLS SKILLS LIKE RIDING A BIKE OR USING A COMPUTER
ENCODING
THE PROCESS OF MEMORY IN WHICH THE BRAIN TRANSLATES INCOMING INFORMATION INTO VISUAL, ACOUSTIC, OR SEMANTIC CODES (BRAIN IS LIKE A COMPUTER)
STORAGE
THE PROCESS OF MEMORY THAT INVOLVES THE MAINTENANCE OF ENCODED INFORMATION OVER A PERIOD OF TIME
MAINTANANCE REHEARSAL
AKA. MECHANICAL REPETITION ..... REPEATING SOMETHING OVER AND OVER TO REMEMBER IT
ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL
REMEMBERING NEW INFO BY RELATING IT TO INFO ALREADY WELL KNOWN
RETRIEVAL
MEMORY PROCESS THAT INVOLVES LOCATING STORED INFORMATION AND RETURNING IT TO CONCIOUS THOUGHT
CONTEXT-DEPENDANT MEM
EASIER TO REMEMBER SOMETHING WHEN BACK IN THE SAME CONTEXT AS WHEN THE MEMORY WAS CREATED
STATE-DEPENDANT MEM
RETRIEVE MEMORIES WHEN THEY ARE IN THE SAME EMOTIONAL STATE AS WHEN THE MEMORY WAS CREATED
SENSORY MEMORY
STAGE OF MEMORY THAT CONSISTS OF THE IMMEDIATE INITIAL RECORDING OF INFORMATION THAT HAS ENTERED THROUGH A PERSONS SENSES
SHORT-TERM MEMORY
ALSO CALLED THE WORKING MEMORY
PRIMACY / RECENCY EFFECT
THE TENDANCY TO RECALL THE FIRST AND LAST ITEMS IN A SERIES RATHER THAN THE MIDDLE
CHUNKING
ORGANIZATION OF INFO INTO FAMILIAR OR MANAGEABLE UNITS
INTERFERENCE
NEW INFO APPEARS AND TAKES THE PLACE OF WHATS ALREADY THERE
LONG-TERM MEMORY
THE FINAL STAGE OF MEMORY WHERE INFORMATION IS STORED TO BE REMEMBERED MORE THAN JUST BRIEFLY
RECOGNITION
IDENTIFYING OBJECTS THAT HAVE BEEN ENCOUNTERED BEFORE (ALSO USED FOR MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST QUESTIONS)
RECALL
BRINGING SOMETHING BACK TO MIND (ALSO USED FOR ESSAY OR SHORT ANSWER TEST QUESTIONS)
DECAY
THE FADING AWAY OF MEMORIES
REPRESSION
FORGET ON PURPOSE WHITOUT KNOWING THAT WE ARE DOING IT TO PROTECT OURSELVES FROM DISTURBING MEMORIES
INFANTILE AMNESIA
FORGETTING EARLY EVENTS IN LIFE (CHILDHOOD)
RETROGRADE AMNESIA
PEOPLE FORGET PERIOD LEADING UP TO A TRAUMATIC EVENT
MNEMONIC DEVICES
SYSTEMS FOR REMEMBERING INFORMATION
ANEROGRADE AMNESIA
MEMORY LOSS FROM TRAUMA THAT PREVENTS A PERSON FROM FORMING NEW MEMORIES
SCHEMAS
MENTAL REPRESENTATIONS OF THE WORLD THAT WE SEE