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Chews and mixes food with saliva


Directs food from mouth to esophogus

Salivary glands

Secrete saliva (contains starch-digesting enzymes)


Protects airways during swallowing


Allows air to pass to and from lungs


Passes food from the mouth to the stomach

Esophageal sphincters

Allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth


Separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity


Adds acid, enzymes, and fluid; churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass

Pyloric sphincter

Allows passage from stomach to small intenstine; prevents backflow from small intestine


Manufactures bile salts; detergent-like substances to help digest fats


Stores bile until needed

Bile duct

Conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine


Stores lymph cells

Small intestine

Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph

Ileocecal valve (sphincter)

Allows passage from small to large intestine; prevents backflow from large intestine


Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to nuetralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine

Pancreatic duct

Conducts pancreatic juice from the pancrease to the small intestine

Large intestine (colon)

Reabsorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to the rectum


Stores waste prior to elimination


Holds rectum closed; opens to allow elimination


Food leaving the mouth


Food leaving the stomach

Intrinsic Factor

Binds to Vitamin B12 in the stomach with HCl

Gastric Acid

HCl-, kills bacteria & denatures protein


enzyme that breaks protein apart

Gastric Lipase

breaks up lipids in stomach

Goblet cells

in stomach; release mucous


protects stomach lining; released by goblet cells


breaks down sugars/carbs


made by liver, stored & secreted in gall bladder; emulsifies fat in intestine

active transport

requires energy (glucose)

facilitated transport

requires some energy (amino acids & fructose)

passive diffusion

no energy required (lipids)

What changes would you need if you did not have a stomach?

Small frequent meals and vitamin b12 injections


begins carbohydrate digestion


enzyme which hydrolyzes proteins

bile is produced in the


bile is stored in the



responds to food in stomach; secreted from stomach wall/ stimulated stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid into stomach


responds to acidic chyme in the small intestine; secreted from duodenal wall; stimulates pancrease to release bicarbonate-rich juices into small intestine


responds to fat or protein in the small intestine; secreted from intestinal wall; stimulates gallbladder to secrete bile into duodenum; stimulates pancreae to release bicarbonate juices into small intestine


fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine; singular is "villus"


tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells

goblet cells

cells of the GI tract that secrete mucus

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