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45 terms

Chapter 3 - Digestion

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Mouth
Chews and mixes food with saliva
Pharynx
Directs food from mouth to esophogus
Salivary glands
Secrete saliva (contains starch-digesting enzymes)
Epiglottis
Protects airways during swallowing
Trachea
Allows air to pass to and from lungs
Esophagus
Passes food from the mouth to the stomach
Esophageal sphincters
Allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth
Diaphram
Separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
Stomach
Adds acid, enzymes, and fluid; churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass
Pyloric sphincter
Allows passage from stomach to small intenstine; prevents backflow from small intestine
Liver
Manufactures bile salts; detergent-like substances to help digest fats
Gallbladder
Stores bile until needed
Bile duct
Conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine
Appendix
Stores lymph cells
Small intestine
Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
Ileocecal valve (sphincter)
Allows passage from small to large intestine; prevents backflow from large intestine
Pancreas
Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to nuetralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine
Pancreatic duct
Conducts pancreatic juice from the pancrease to the small intestine
Large intestine (colon)
Reabsorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to the rectum
Rectum
Stores waste prior to elimination
Anus
Holds rectum closed; opens to allow elimination
Bolus
Food leaving the mouth
Chyme
Food leaving the stomach
Intrinsic Factor
Binds to Vitamin B12 in the stomach with HCl
Gastric Acid
HCl-, kills bacteria & denatures protein
Pepsin
enzyme that breaks protein apart
Gastric Lipase
breaks up lipids in stomach
Goblet cells
in stomach; release mucous
mucous
protects stomach lining; released by goblet cells
Amylase
breaks down sugars/carbs
bile
made by liver, stored & secreted in gall bladder; emulsifies fat in intestine
active transport
requires energy (glucose)
facilitated transport
requires some energy (amino acids & fructose)
passive diffusion
no energy required (lipids)
What changes would you need if you did not have a stomach?
Small frequent meals and vitamin b12 injections
saliva
begins carbohydrate digestion
protease
enzyme which hydrolyzes proteins
bile is produced in the
liver
bile is stored in the
gallbladder
gastrin
responds to food in stomach; secreted from stomach wall/ stimulated stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid into stomach
secretin
responds to acidic chyme in the small intestine; secreted from duodenal wall; stimulates pancrease to release bicarbonate-rich juices into small intestine
cholecystokinin
responds to fat or protein in the small intestine; secreted from intestinal wall; stimulates gallbladder to secrete bile into duodenum; stimulates pancreae to release bicarbonate juices into small intestine
villi
fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine; singular is "villus"
microvilli
tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells
goblet cells
cells of the GI tract that secrete mucus