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Allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth
Allows passage from stomach to small intenstine; prevents backflow from small intestine
Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
Ileocecal valve (sphincter)
Allows passage from small to large intestine; prevents backflow from large intestine
Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to nuetralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine
Large intestine (colon)
Reabsorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to the rectum
What changes would you need if you did not have a stomach?
Small frequent meals and vitamin b12 injections
responds to food in stomach; secreted from stomach wall/ stimulated stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid into stomach
responds to acidic chyme in the small intestine; secreted from duodenal wall; stimulates pancrease to release bicarbonate-rich juices into small intestine
responds to fat or protein in the small intestine; secreted from intestinal wall; stimulates gallbladder to secrete bile into duodenum; stimulates pancreae to release bicarbonate juices into small intestine
tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells
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