Chews and mixes food with saliva
Directs food from mouth to esophogus
Secrete saliva (contains starch-digesting enzymes)
Protects airways during swallowing
Allows air to pass to and from lungs
Passes food from the mouth to the stomach
Allow passage from mouth to esophagus and from esophagus to stomach; prevent backflow from stomach to esophagus and from esophagus to mouth
Separates the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
Adds acid, enzymes, and fluid; churns, mixes, and grinds food to a liquid mass
Allows passage from stomach to small intenstine; prevents backflow from small intestine
Manufactures bile salts; detergent-like substances to help digest fats
Stores bile until needed
Conducts bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine
Stores lymph cells
Secretes enzymes that digest all energy-yielding nutrients to smaller nutrient particles; cells of wall absorb nutrients into blood and lymph
Ileocecal valve (sphincter)
Allows passage from small to large intestine; prevents backflow from large intestine
Manufactures enzymes to digest all energy-yielding nutrients and releases bicarbonate to nuetralize acid chyme that enters the small intestine
Conducts pancreatic juice from the pancrease to the small intestine
Large intestine (colon)
Reabsorbs water and minerals; passes waste (fiber, bacteria, and unabsorbed nutrients) along with water to the rectum
Stores waste prior to elimination
Holds rectum closed; opens to allow elimination
Food leaving the mouth
Food leaving the stomach
Binds to Vitamin B12 in the stomach with HCl
HCl-, kills bacteria & denatures protein
enzyme that breaks protein apart
breaks up lipids in stomach
in stomach; release mucous
protects stomach lining; released by goblet cells
breaks down sugars/carbs
made by liver, stored & secreted in gall bladder; emulsifies fat in intestine
requires energy (glucose)
requires some energy (amino acids & fructose)
no energy required (lipids)
What changes would you need if you did not have a stomach?
Small frequent meals and vitamin b12 injections
begins carbohydrate digestion
enzyme which hydrolyzes proteins
bile is produced in the
bile is stored in the
responds to food in stomach; secreted from stomach wall/ stimulated stomach glands to release hydrochloric acid into stomach
responds to acidic chyme in the small intestine; secreted from duodenal wall; stimulates pancrease to release bicarbonate-rich juices into small intestine
responds to fat or protein in the small intestine; secreted from intestinal wall; stimulates gallbladder to secrete bile into duodenum; stimulates pancreae to release bicarbonate juices into small intestine
fingerlike projections from the folds of the small intestine; singular is "villus"
tiny, hairlike projections on each cell of every villus that can trap nutrient particles and transport them into the cells
cells of the GI tract that secrete mucus
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