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drip irrigation

tubing along grounds-holes in tubing at the base of crops


Protective ground cover that protects the soil, saves water, and prevents weed growth.


water stored beneath the Earth's surface


underground zone of earth where groundwater can be obatined


ground level is sinking down


removing salt from the water

gases and silica

two major ingredients that determine the type of eruption

dormant volcano

inactive but hot long enough to determine whether they'll erupt again

extinct volcano

always inactive

active volcano

erupts constantly

intermittent volcano

erupts fairly regularly

strip mining

Form of surface mining in which bulldozers, power shovels, or stripping wheels remove large chunks of the earth's surface in strips.

mt top removal

blows off top of mts with explosives

open pit

large mine; out in the open

underground pit

subsurface mining

igneous rock

formed from hot molten rock produced by volcanic activity

Extrusive igneous rocks

formed through cooling and hardening on the earth's surface

sedimentary rock

formed by mineral and rock fragments that settle out of water, glaciers, or that collects through the action of wind

metamorphic rock

has been transformed by heat and pressure


plates move apart


plates come together


plates slide past each other; up and down

sea floor spreading

lava cools and attaches to the edges of each plate

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