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Questions from the Pre-class quizzes: 13,14,15; 23,24; 17,18,21

Research indicates that 3-week-old human infants can distinguish ...

Their mother's voice from that of a female stranger.

A teratogen is a(n)...

A substance that can cross the placental barrier and harm an unborn child.

he developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth is known as a(n) ...

A fetus

A child can be born a drug addict because...

Drugs used by the mother will pass into the child's bloodstream.

Human sperm cells are ________ than egg cells.


Infants develop a fear of strangers at about 8 months of age because they can't assimilate unfamiliar faces into their ...


The association areas are the last cortical areas to fully develop their ...

Neural networks.

If warmly supportive parents are especially likely to have children with high self-esteem, this would most clearly indicate that ...

Warmly supportive parenting and children's self-esteem are correlated.

Aaron cried when his mother left him in the infant nursery at church, and he was not reassured or comforted by her return a short while later. Aaron showed signs of ...

Insecure attachment

The process of imprinting involves the formation of a(n) ...


According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.


Vincent's ability to reason hypothetically in his geometry class indicates that he is in the ________ stage of development.

Formal Operational

According to Erikson, committing oneself to meaningful social roles would be most indicative of the achievement of ...


Haidt's social intuitionist account highlights the impact of automatic gut-level feelings on ...

Moral judgements

Piaget is to cognitive development as Erikson is to ________ development.


After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 15 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates ...

Sensory Adaptation

Which theory assumes that top-down processing can influence a person's absolute threshold for a particular stimulus?

Signal Detection Theory

Those who believe in the value of subliminal audiotapes would be wrong to claim that ...

Unconsciously processed information is unusually persuasive.

People's diminishing sensitivity to a faint sound over a 30-minute interval can be minimized by brief moments of physical exercise. This fact is of most relevance to ...

Signal Detection Theory

Some participants in a subliminal persuasion experiment thought that they were receiving subliminal affirmations of their self-esteem when in reality they were receiving subliminal memory-enhancement instructions. These individuals subsequently demonstrated ...

An erroneous belief that their self-esteem had improved

Objects are brought into focus on the retina by changes in the curve and thickness of the ...


The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates ...

Parallel Processing

Accommodation refers to the process by which...

the lens changes shape to focus images on the retina.

Which receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light?


Compared with rods, cones are ...

less sensitive to dim light and more sensitive to fine detail.

The tendency to see all the individual spokes in a bicycle wheel as part of a larger single unit best illustrates the principle of ...


The organization of two-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional perceptions is called ...

Depth Perception

The historical movement associated with the statement "The whole may exceed the sum of its parts" is ...

Gestalt psychology

Who best illustrated that the perceived whole differs from the sum of its parts?

Gestalt psychologists

Relative height is a cue involving our perception of objects higher in our field of vision as ...

Farther away

________ processing refers to how our knowledge and expectations influence perception.

Top down

Experiments evaluating the impact of subliminal self-help recordings for improving memory indicated that they ...

Did not help more than a placebo

Some people are better than others at detecting slight variations in the tastes of various blends of coffee. This best illustrates the importance of ...

Difference thresholds

In experiments, an image is quickly flashed and then replaced by a masking stimulus that inhibits conscious perception of the original image. In these experiments, the researchers are studying the effects of ...


What is an accurate description of how we process color?

Color processing occurs in two stages: (1) a three-color system in the retina and (2) opponent-process cells en route to the visual cortex.

The ability to process information automatically and without conscious awareness of doing so is best illustrated by ...


According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are turned "on" by ________ light are turned "off" by ________ light.

yellow; blue

In the opponent-process theory, the three pairs of processes are ...

red-green, blue-yellow, black-white.

People who demonstrate blindsight have most likely suffered damage to their ...

Visual Cortex

The tendency to see complete letters on a neon sign, even though some of the bulbs are burned out, illustrates the principle of ...


Which of the following distance cues most likely contributes to the perception that the height of the St. Louis Gateway Arch is greater than its width?

Relative Height

What is a binocular cue for the perception of distance?

Retinal Disparity

Objects higher in our field of vision are perceived as ________ due to the principle of ________.

Farther away; relative height

To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a ...


Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of ...


As a child, you were playing in the yard one day when a neighbor's cat wandered over. Your mother (who has a terrible fear of animals) screamed and snatched you into her arms. Her behavior caused you to cry. You now have a fear of cats. Identify the CS.

The cat

In Pavlov's studies of classical conditioning of a dog's salivary responses, spontaneous recovery occurred ...

when the CS was reintroduced following extinction of the CR and a rest period.

John B. Watson considered himself to be a(n) ...


During extinction, the ________ is omitted; as a result, the ________ seems to disappear.


According to the text, learning involves ...

a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

According to B. F. Skinner, human behavior is controlled primarily by ...

External Influences

Online testing systems and interactive software are applications of the operant conditioning principles of ...

Shaping and immediate reinforcement

A pigeon can easily be taught to flap its wings in order to avoid shock but not for food reinforcement. According to the text, this is most likely so because ...

pigeons are biologically predisposed to flap their wings in order to escape aversive events and to use their beaks to obtain food.

After exploring a complicated maze for several days, a rat subsequently ran the maze with very few errors when food was placed in the goal box for the first time. This performance illustrates ...

Latent Learning

A child who is punished for swearing at home but reinforced for swearing on the school playground is most likely to demonstrate a patterned habit of swearing that is indicative of ...


Janet has almost finished painting a neighbor's house, at which time she'll be paid $2000. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ________ reinforcers.


Positive reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcers ________ the rate of operant responding.

Increase; Increase

Cognitive processes are important in...

both classical and operant conditioning.

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