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53 terms

CFD- chapter 3

chapter 3
STUDY
PLAY
transactional
the dynamic process whereby our exchanges with others simultaneously affect and are affected by our intimate relations
Family Systems Theory (FST)
is a GST that sees the family as an interconnected system--a whole entity comprising interconnected parts that seek balance, it concerns interactions and interrelations

(words that are related to this and that will be in essay question: wholeness, homeostasis, boundaries, family rules and roles)
General Systems Theory (GST)
a worldview of a paradigm that puts forth the notion that objects do not exist in isolation, but instead are interconnected parts of a larger whole
system
"to place together" or to connect one entity to another
family system
a living, ever-changing, dynamic entity that consists of various individuals and their interconnected, intergenerational patterns or interactions
subsystems
the relational patterns and interactions among the separate individuals within a family
family of origin
the family into which we are born or brought into by adoption
boundary
every system has some type of border between it and its environment
closed boundaries
forming one end of the boundary spectrum, prevent information from coming in or going out
open boundaries
boundaries where the transfer of information is so unobstructed that family members within the systems lose their identities
homeostasis
balance, Virgina Satir mobile metaphor
Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems
this model was created to address family cohesion, adaptability, and communication, providing the means to assess a family's level of functioning and health. according to David Olson's model, families who exhibit balance function more sufficiently and effectively over time than families who are more out of balance

family's emotional bonding
-disengaged (not enough engagement)
-enmeshed (too much in each other's lives)
family's flexibility
-chaotic (unreasonably wide open boundaries)
-rigid (rules have no flexibility, rules made for convenience of grow-ups)
rules
govern what family members can and cannot discuss or share and how they are to interact with their own family members
Symbolic Interaction Theory
This approach to examining family life and family communication assumes that human behavior is a continuous dialogue where people watch the behaviors of people and then react to these behaviors

continuous observation and reactions to others

focus on communication (verbal and non-verbal)

communication as:
-transaction
-process
-construction of meanings
-symbols (codes)
symbols
in an attempt to share meanings (codes)
meanings
the definition to which we assign to verbal and nonverbal interactions
role
-key concept in Symbolic Interaction theory
-"system of meanings"
role strain
occurs when there are competing demands from multiple roles
role conflict
the contradictory demands of the various roles individuals must perform, such as parent versus employee
child language brokering
children in non-English-speaking homes are called on to be mediators and to speak or read, since in most cases the children are first to acquire competence in a new language
message
the obvious meaning of a communication
metamessage
the underlying context in which a communication takes place
trouble talk
talking about emotional and relationship problems
communication
the process of making and sharing meanings
verbal communication
refers to exchange of thoughts, messages, or information through the spoken word
nonverbal communication
occurs with or without the spoken word (emotions)
emotional communication
the physical gestures and movements that convey our emotions (aka nonverbal communication)
relational messages
messages that have something to do with the partner or relationship
non-relational messages
issues or topics concerning things outside of the relationship
decode
the interpretation of unspoken exchanges
functional communication
communication that addresses only the ins and outs of daily life, leaving one feelings as though something is lacking in one's family connections
nurturing communication
interactions that convey intimacy, caring, recognition and validation of family members
relational culture
a framework of understanding--a private, unique, distinct language--that couples construct in private
confirming messages/responses
types of communication characterized by recognition of the other person, relevant dialogue, and acceptance; all of these show a willingness to be involved in the relationship

"i hear you"
self-disclosure
voluntarily sharing things with someone else that are personal or private to us

"i trust you"
emotional safety
the high degree of trust required to selfdisclose
family meetings
formal or informal regular family discussions that provide structure and organization tot he family system and allow for meaningful conversation
active listening
when we do this, we become connected to another person so we not only hear what they are saying, but understand what they are feeling
reflective listening
a form of active listening in which we pay close attention to a person's verbal and emotional messages, and respectfully acknowledge their perspective
reframe
to view the issue from another perspective
constructive conflict
conflict that serves to build relationships and to foster loyalty, commitment, and intimacy

even during disagreements...avoids negative comments and affirms value/worth of partner
regulated couples
they use communication patterns and interpersonal behaviors that promote closeness and intimacy, such as using more positive comments than negative comments during times of tension

validating, volative, conflict-minimizing
destructive conflict
can be either:
overt--which refers to obvious conflict (verbal-hurtful, gunnysackin) or
covert--which is more subtle but nonetheless hurtful, (denial, displacement, disengaged, pseudomutuality (ignoring it))

this type of conflict is unhelpful and can be deadly (physical violence)
scapegoating
an example of displacement, occurs when anger and hostility are directed at one family member in particular who always bears the brunt of everyone's frustration
gunnysacking
refers to a spouse or family member who hold in resentment, hurt, anger, frustration, and bitter feelings until that "last straw"--when they unload all the pent-up feelings in the midst of an argument
nonregulated couples
these couples have a difficult time bouncing back from arguments and disputes because the manner in which they handle the conflict only compounds the issues at hand

criticism, defensiveness, contempt (overall hate), stonewalling
stonewalling
when communication between marital partners completely shuts down
forgiveness
a deliberate process that transforms a strong desire for revenge into a positive response
direct forgiveness
family members or intimate partners clearly, plainly, and directly tell the offender that she or he is forgiven

overt words spoken to the person
indirect forgiveness
family members or intimate partners communicate this type of forgiveness by nonverbal displays and by acting as though the transgression never happened

actions, written, gifts
conditional forgiveness
the type of forgiveness used when people want relational repair, but they want to make it very clear that repeating certain behaviors will not be tolerated

i will forgive you, if you do this
narcissistic entitlement
a sense of being entitled to, or deserving, only the good things in life; a pride-related barrier to forgiveness
self-righteousness
the inability to see one's own potential for doing wrong or hurting another person; a pride-related barrier to forgiveness