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Vocabulary Terms for Unit 2.

Agricultural Revolution

The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering


a period count of the population

crude birth rate

the number of live births yearly per 1,000 people.

crude death rate

The number of deaths per year per 1,000 people.

demographic transition

The process of change in a society's population from a condition of high crude birth and death rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude birth and death rates, low rate of natural increase, and a higher total population.


the scientific study of population characteristics

dependency ratio

The number of people under the age of 15 and over age 64, compares to the number of people active in the labor force.

doubling time

The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase.

epidemiologic transition

Distinctive causes of death in each stage of the demographic transition.


Branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.


The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.

industrial revolution

A series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods.

infant mortality rate

the number of deaths in the first year of life for every 1,000 live births


The number of a people in an area exceeds the capacity of the environment to support life at a decent standard of living.

life expectancy

The average number of years an individual can be expected to live, given current social, economic, and medical conditions. Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live.

medical revolution

Medical technology invented in Europe and North America that is diffused to the poorer countries of Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

natural increase rate

The percentage growth of a population in a year, computed as the crude birth rate minus the crude death rate.


an epidemic that is geographically widespread

physiological density

The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture.

population pyramid

A bar graph representing the distribution of population by age and sex.

sex ratio

The number of males per 100 females in the population.

total fertility rate

The average number of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years.

zero population growth

A decline of the total fertility rate to the point where the natural increase rate equals zero.

brain drain

Large-scale emigration by talented people.

chain migration

migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there


Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.


Net migration from urban to rural areas in more developed countries.


migration FROM a location


The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends.

forced migration

Permanent movement compelled usually by cultural factors.

guest workers

Workers who migrate to the more developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern of Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of higher-paying jobs.


migration to a new location

internal migration

Permanent movement within a particular country.

international migration

permanent migration from one country to another.

interregional migration

Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.

intervening obstacle

An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration.

intraregional migration

Permanent movement within one region of a country.


Form of relocation diffusion involving permanent move to a new location.

migration transition

Change in the migration pattern in a society that results from industrialization, population growth, and other social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition.


All types of movement from one location to another.

net migration

The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration.

pull factors

a factor that draws or attracts people to another location


In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year


People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion.

undocumented immigrants

People who enter a country without proper documents.

voluntary migration

Permanent movement undertaken by choice.

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