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in the Roman Empire, an official in charge of a province

Simon Peter

leader of the apostles; Jewish fisherman who had become a follower of Jesus


founded Christian communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the Aegean Sea; major apostle who was a highly educated Jewish Roman citizen

New Testament

the second part of the Christian Bible, it provides a record of Jesus' life and teachings


church leaders


regular church members


first Christian emperor; issued the Edict of Milan

Theodosius the Great

under him, the Romans adopted Christianity as their official religion


most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age; wrote Aeneid in honor of Rome


another prominent Augustan poet; mostly laughed at the weaknesses of humans


in the Roman social structure, the dominant male head of the household, which also included his wife, sons, and their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves


gladiator who led the most famous slave revolt in Italy in 73 BC


Roman apartment blocks constructed of concrete


richest man in Rome; formed a triumvirate with Pompey and Julius Caesar; given a command in Syria


had a successful command in Spain and was a military hero; formed a triumvirate with Crassus and Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar

formed a triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey; granted a special military command in Gaul; made dictator in 45 BC


an absolute ruler


"the revered one"; Octavian, the first Roman emperor


commander in chief; the Latin origin of the word "emperor"

Pax Romana

"Roman Peace"; period of peace and prosperity that lasted for almost a hundred years


located on the plain of Latium in Italy; by 133 BC, stood supreme over the Mediterranean Sea


one of the Indo-European peoples who moved into Italy from about 1500-1000 BC; spoke Latin and were herders and farmers


after 650 BC, controlled Rome and most of Latium; most influenced the early development of Rome


a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote


Roman historian who wrote in the first century BC; provided stories to teach Romans the virtues that had made Rome great


great landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic


in the Roman Republic, a social class made up of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers


a chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year, one to run the government and one to lead the army into battle


an officer of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law

centuriate assembly

in the Roman Republic, the most important of the people's assemblies; it elected the chief officials and passed laws

council of the plebs

a popular assembly created in 471 BC for plebeians only

tribunes of the plebs

new officials that were given the power to protect the plebeians

Twelve Tables

Rome's first code of laws which was adopted in 450 BC; product of a simple farming society

Law of Nations

universal law based on reason; standards of justice that applied to all people

First Punic War

Rome's first war with Carthage in 264 BC; war over conquering Sicily

Second Punic War

retaliation to Rome by Hannibal; Carthage loses Spain

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