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36 terms

Ch. 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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procurator
in the Roman Empire, an official in charge of a province
Simon Peter
leader of the apostles; Jewish fisherman who had become a follower of Jesus
Paul
founded Christian communities throughout Asia Minor and along the shores of the Aegean Sea; major apostle who was a highly educated Jewish Roman citizen
New Testament
the second part of the Christian Bible, it provides a record of Jesus' life and teachings
clergy
church leaders
laity
regular church members
Constantine
first Christian emperor; issued the Edict of Milan
Theodosius the Great
under him, the Romans adopted Christianity as their official religion
Virgil
most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age; wrote Aeneid in honor of Rome
Horace
another prominent Augustan poet; mostly laughed at the weaknesses of humans
paterfamilias
in the Roman social structure, the dominant male head of the household, which also included his wife, sons, and their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves
Spartacus
gladiator who led the most famous slave revolt in Italy in 73 BC
insulae
Roman apartment blocks constructed of concrete
Crassus
richest man in Rome; formed a triumvirate with Pompey and Julius Caesar; given a command in Syria
Pompey
had a successful command in Spain and was a military hero; formed a triumvirate with Crassus and Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
formed a triumvirate with Crassus and Pompey; granted a special military command in Gaul; made dictator in 45 BC
dictaor
an absolute ruler
Augustus
"the revered one"; Octavian, the first Roman emperor
imperator
commander in chief; the Latin origin of the word "emperor"
Pax Romana
"Roman Peace"; period of peace and prosperity that lasted for almost a hundred years
Rome
located on the plain of Latium in Italy; by 133 BC, stood supreme over the Mediterranean Sea
Latins
one of the Indo-European peoples who moved into Italy from about 1500-1000 BC; spoke Latin and were herders and farmers
Etruscans
after 650 BC, controlled Rome and most of Latium; most influenced the early development of Rome
republic
a form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote
Livy
Roman historian who wrote in the first century BC; provided stories to teach Romans the virtues that had made Rome great
patrician
great landowners, they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic
plebeian
in the Roman Republic, a social class made up of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers
consul
a chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year, one to run the government and one to lead the army into battle
praetor
an officer of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law
centuriate assembly
in the Roman Republic, the most important of the people's assemblies; it elected the chief officials and passed laws
council of the plebs
a popular assembly created in 471 BC for plebeians only
tribunes of the plebs
new officials that were given the power to protect the plebeians
Twelve Tables
Rome's first code of laws which was adopted in 450 BC; product of a simple farming society
Law of Nations
universal law based on reason; standards of justice that applied to all people
First Punic War
Rome's first war with Carthage in 264 BC; war over conquering Sicily
Second Punic War
retaliation to Rome by Hannibal; Carthage loses Spain