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Ethnobotany

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Ironwood
Named for its strength and density, the branches of this shrub were used to make arrows and spear shafts, and even sewing needles.
Bigleaf maple
This tree produces wood that is good for canoe paddles, and leaves that, some believed, could be rubbed on the face of a young man to prevent the growth of whiskers.
Salal
Berries of this shrub could be mixed with bear grease to eat in the winter. You could also fashion its sturdy little leaves into temporary drinking cups.
Sword Fern
Frond of this plant could be used as protective layering in baskets.
Red Alder
Providing the best fuel to smoke fish, this tree also provided a red pigment that could be used for dye.
Baldhip Rose
The skin of the fruit(the "hips") of this flowering plant provided a little nutrition in times of famine. But caution was advised because too much ingestion of the fibrous seeds could lead to "itchy bottom".
Western Redcedar
Called the "Tree of Life", this beautiful conifer was used in making major artifacts of Native American culture such as totem poles, canoes, and the planks of long houses. The bark could be fashioned into clothing.
Vine Maple
Flexible branches of this shrub could be used to make snowshoe frames and drum hoops.
Douglas Fir
Although the wood from this common tree was used for fuel, its sap was also used as a primitive form of caulk, sealing holes in canoes. It could also be applied to sticks used as torches.
Fireweed
Fibers from this plant could be fashioned into strings and rope. In addition, the fluff from the seeds was used as stuffing for mattresses and pillows.