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Chapter 2 Workforce Safety and Wellness
Terms in this set (21)
1. Explain the steps that contribute to wellness and resilience and their importance in managing stress. (pp 31-38)
1) Standard safety precautions
2) Personal protective equipment
3) Stress management
4) Dealing with death and dying
5) Prevention of response-related injuries
6) Prevention of work-related injuries
7) Lifting and moving patients
8) Disease transmission
9) Principles of wellness and resilience
Wellness is the active pursuit of a state of good health.
Resilience is the capacity of an individual to cope with and recover from distress.
- Eat a healthy and well-balanced diet.
- Ensure a minimum of 7 to 9 hours of sleep.
- Strengthen positive relationships with family and friends.
- Build relationships with peers and colleagues.
- Incorporate daily stretching, movement, and exercise.
- Build habits of mindfulness and positivity.
2. Differentiate infectious disease and communicable disease. (p 38)
3. Identify the risks and hazards of sleep deprivation in EMS. (pp 35-36)
risks and hazards:
- short term: medical errors, vehicle crashes, harm to others
- long term: hypertension, sleep apnea, respiratory issues, diabetes, depression, etc.
^cycle with inc. stress to sleep dep.
4. State the routes of disease transmission. (pp 38-40)
1) direct contact: organism from one person to another though touch (Hep B)
2) indirect contact: spread from one person to another by inanimate object (needle)
3) airborne: through droplets (Covid-19)
4) food-borne: organism contaminated food or water
5) vector-borne: animals/insects carry organism (bubonic plague)
5. Describe the specific routes of transmission and the steps to prevent and/or deal with an exposure to hepatitis, tuberculosis, or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (pp 38-49)
1) hepatitis B:
- direct contact, heavy bleeding.
- gloves/ masks/ eyewear.
- vaccine, test for antibodies (if you have then all good, if not --> x3 hep B immune globulin shot)
- masks (N95)/ eyewear.
- tuberculin skin test, if pos. oral antituberculin meds
3) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS):
- indirect contact (needle)
- handle needles properly/carefully
- antiviral meds
6. Apply the standard precautions used in treating patients to prevent infection. (pp 41-49)
1) hand hygiene:
- after touching fluids
- after removing gloves
- between patients
- covid-19 patients: before gloves
- before touching anything
- covid 19 patients
- EMT contact with fluids
- covid 19 patients
4) mask, eye protection, face shield:
- covid 19 patients
patient care: clean and handle things in a way they won't cause threat to others
7. Explain the steps to take for personal protection from airborne and bloodborne pathogens. (pp 41-49)
donning ppe: gown, mask, eyewear, gloves
doffing ppe: reverse
hand wash: 20 sec (nails, between fingers, back of hands)
eye protection and face shield
proper disposal of sharps
8. Demonstrate proper handwashing techniques. (pp 41-43)
between finger, under fingernails, back of hand
9. Explain the ways in which immunity to infectious diseases is acquired. (pp 51-53)
- Hepatitis B
- Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR)
- Varicella vaccine or having had chickenpox
- Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis (Tdap)
10. Summarize postexposure management of exposure to patient blood or body fluids, including completing a postexposure report. (pp 53-54)
1) Turn over patient care to another EMS provider.
2) Clean the exposed area.
3) Rinse your eyes if necessary (20 minutes).
4) Activate your department's infection control plan.
5) Complete an exposure report.
11. Discuss the steps necessary to determine scene safety and to prevent work-related injuries at the scene. (pp 54-61)
1. Begin protecting yourself as soon as you are dispatched.
- Wear seat belts.
- Don appropriate PPE.
2. Continue to protect yourself once on scene.
- Make sure the scene is well marked.
- Place warning devices to alert other motorists of the scene.
- Park at a safe distance from the scene.
- Make sure there is plenty of light if it is dark.
- Wear reflective clothing if it is dark.
12. Describe the different types of protective clothing worn to prevent injury. (pp 61-65)
a. A thin inner layer that pulls moisture away from the skin
b. A thermal middle layer that serves as insulation
c. An outer layer that resists wind, rain, sleet, and snow
a. Protects from heat, fire, sparks, and flashover
b. Also called bunker gear
- Heat, cold, cuts
- May reduce dexterity
- Falling objects
- Steel-toed is preferred
- Glasses with side shield
- Foam earplugs
13. Differentiate issues concerning care of the dying patient, death, and the grieving process of family members. (pp 67-69)
care of the dying patient:
- Avoid sad and grim comments.
- Orient the patient.
- Be honest.
- Deal with possible initial refusal of care.
- Allow for hope.
- Locate and notify family members.
- Ask a responsible adult to accompany the child.
- of a child:
- A tragic event
- Help the family in any way you can.
- Let the family's actions be your guide.
- Prepare the parents.
- Quite suddenly
- After a prolonged, terminal illness
- Anger, hostility
Ask how you can help.
Allow the patient and family to grieve.
14. Recognize the physiologic, physical, and psychological responses to stress. (pp 69-70)
General adaptation syndrome:
- Alarm response to stress
- Reaction and resistance
- Recovery—or exhaustion
Physiologic signs of stress:
- Increased respirations and heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Cool, clammy skin
- Dilated pupils
- Tensed muscles
- Increased blood glucose level
- Decreased blood flow to gastrointestinal tract
1. Acute stress reactions
a. Occur during a stressful situation
2. Delayed stress reactions
a. Manifest after stressful event
3. Cumulative stress reactions
a. Prolonged or excessive stress
ii. Changes in appetite
iii. Gastrointestinal problems
v. Insomnia or hypersomnia
vii. Inability to concentrate
viii. Hyperactivity or underactivity
ii. Dull or nonresponsive behavior
v. Oversensitivity, anger, irritability and frustration
15. Explain posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and steps that can be taken, including critical incident stress management, to decrease the likelihood that PTSD will develop. (pp 71-72)
1. May develop after a person has experienced a psychologically distressing event.
2. Characterized by reexperiencing the event and overresponding to stimuli that recall the event.
CISM is used to help providers relieve stress.
a. CISM can occur formally or at an ongoing scene.
b. Trained CISM professionals facilitate.
i. Defusing sessions are held during or immediately after the event.
ii. Debriefing sessions are held 24-72 hours after the incident.
iii. An important rule is to not turn the debriefing session into an operational critique.
c. If CISM is not an option, private counseling by a mental health professional may be preferable.
16. Identify the emotional aspects of emergency care. (pp 73-74)
1. At times, even the most experienced health care provider has difficulty overcoming personal reactions and proceeding without hesitation.
2. The struggle to remain calm in the face of horrible circumstances contributes to the emotional stress of the job.
17. Recognize the stress inherent in many situations, such as mass-casualty scenes. (pp 74-75)
1. During stressful situations you must exercise extreme professional care in both your words and your actions at the scene.
2. Factors that influence how a patient reacts to the stress of an EMS incident.
a. Socioeconomic background
b. Fear of medical personnel
c. Alcohol or substance use disorders
d. History of chronic illness
e. Mental disorders
f. Reaction to medication
h. Nutritional status
i. Feelings of guilt
j. Past experience with illness or injury
3. Quickly and calmly assess the actions of the patient, family members, and bystanders.
4. Use a professional tone and show courtesy, along with sincere concern and efficient action.
5. Patients must be given the opportunity to express their fears and concerns.
6. Religious customs or needs of the patient must be respected.
a. Some people have religious convictions that strongly oppose the use of medications, blood, and blood products. Report this information to the next level of care.
7. In the event of a death, handle the body with respect and dignity.
18. Recognize the possibility of violent situations and the steps to take to deal with them. (pp 60-61)
- Know who is in command.
- Remain vigilant for the potential for violence.
- Allow law enforcement to clear the scene.
- At scenes involving projectiles find protection.
- Cover/ Concealment
Recommendations for preventing violence:
- Training and practice identifying scenes of potential violence
- Training and practice with deescalation strategies and techniques
- Training and practice improving interpersonal communication
- Dispatch identification and alerting of past or potential threats of violence
Recommendations for protection against violence:
- Training and practice in self-defense and escape techniques
- Training and practice with physical and chemical escape techniques
- Fitting and use of body armor
- Training and practice in operations with law enforcement
19. Identify behavioral emergencies. (pp 60-61)
a.) Emergencies that do not have a clear physical cause*i. The cause may turn out to be physical (eg, hypoglycemia, head trauma, hypoxia, toxic ingestion).
b.) These emergencies result in aberrant behavior.
c.) Most behavioral emergencies do not pose a threat, but some do, and you must use caution in such cases.
Use observation and assess the patient with a series of questions and asses their overall condition to determine their state.
20. Discuss workplace issues such as cultural diversity, sexual harassment, and substance abuse. (pp 75-77)
Cultural diversity on the job
- Two types:
- Quid pro quo: request for sexual favors
- Hostile work environment: jokes, touching, etc.
- Report harassment to your supervisor immediately and keep notes.
- Increases risks on the job
- Leads to poor decision making
- Seek help or find a way to confront an addicted coworker.
- Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are often available.
Injury and illness prevention:
- Management leadership
- Worker participation
- Hazard identification and assessment
- Hazard prevention and control
- Education and training
- Program evaluation and improvement
21. Identify resources for positive mental health and suicide prevention. (pp 72-73)
national suicide prevention lifeline
center for firefighter behavioral health
safe call now
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