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37 terms

A&P chapter 8: Joints

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Fibrous Joint Structure
bones held together by fibrous tissue; no joint cavity

ex. sutures of the skull, fibrous ligament connecting the tibia and fibula
Cartilaginous Joint Structure
bones held together by cartilage; no joined cavity

ex. intervertebral joints, epiphyseal plate
Synovial Joint Structure
-bones separated by a joint cavity
-lubricated by synovial fluid
-enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule

ex. all joint of the limbs, most joints of the body
synarthroses joint function
-joints with little or no motion
-typically help together by fibrous connective tissue or cartilage; bones fuse over time

ex. skull sutures, teeth in sockets, 1st constosternal joint
amphiarthroses joint function
-slightly moveable joint
-typically held together by fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, or ligaments

ex intervertebral disks, costosternal joints, pubic symphysis
diarthroses joint function
-freely moveable
-needs space for joint to move

ex. should, knee, hip, elbow, interphalangeal, tarsal and carpal joints
sutures
-bones that interlock and are held together by dense fibrous connective tissue
-during middle age the bones of the skill tend to completely fuse
-synarthroses joint
symphyses
-bones that are separated with a wedge of fibrocartilage
-an amphiarthroses joint
freely moveable joints
-synovial joints
5 distinguishing features
-articular cartilage
-joint cavity
-articular capsule
-synovial fluid
-reinforcing ligament
articular cartilage
-function to absorb compression
-covers the opposing bones of a joint
joint cavity
space between the bones
articular capsule
-membranous lining
-outer fibrous capsule made of dense irregular connective tissue
-continuous with the periosteum
-inner synovial membrane made of loose connective tissue
synovial fluid
interstitial tissue with hyaluronic acid
function of synovial fluid
a) lubrication: thick and viscous, reduces friction
b) nutrient distribution-joint movement (circulation)
c) shock absorption-distributes shock evenly across articular surface
reinforcing ligaments
reinforces and strengthens joint
dislocation
when reinforcing structures can not stop a joint from moving outside its normal range of motion
meniscus
only in articular disks
-fibrocartilage pad between opposing bones
-channel the flow of synovial fluid
fat pads
at edges of joint
-provide protection for cartilage
-packing material
bursae
small pockets with synovial fluid
-form where tendons or ligaments rub agains bone
-reduce friction, shock absorber
types of synovial joints
-plane joints
-hinge joints
-pivot joints
-condyloid joins
-saddle joints
-ball and socket joints
plane joints
-flattened or one slightly curved face
-allow gliding movements

ex. intercarpal and intertarsal joints
hinge joints
permit angular motion in a single plane

ex. elbow, knee, ankle
pivot joint
allows rotation about a single axis

ex. atlas and axis
condyloid joints
allow angular motion in two planes and circumduction

ex. wrist
saddle joints
also allow angular motion in two planes and circumduction but not rotation

ex. base of thumb
ball and socket joint
allow for the widest range of motion

ex. shoulder and hip
sprains
-stretching or tearing of ligaments that reinforce joint
-very slow to heal (small blood supply)

partial tear-slow repair
completely ruptured-surgery needed
hyaline cartilage injury
-common in knee
-knee deals with repetitive mechanical force 65 times body weight
articular cartilage injury
-very hard to rebuild since it lack a blood supply (gets nutrition from synovial fluid
-lacks venous and lymphatic drainage
dislocation
-bones forced out of their normal positions of joints
-common in shoulders, fingers and thumbs

treatment-bones simply put back to their original position
Bursitis
1) inflammation of bursa caused by excessive stress or friction
2) bacterial infection
prepattelar bursa
"housemaids knee", water on the knee
symptoms: redness, swelling, pain
treatment:-anti-inflammatory injections
-needle aspiration
tendonitis
inflammation of tendon sheaths
symptoms: redness, swelling, pain
treatment: anti-inflammatory injections
-needle aspiration
osteoarthritis
-degenerative joint disease
-diminishes articular cartilage
-most common chronic arthritis
-forms bony spurs
common in fingers, cervical & lumbar spine, knee and hips
slow and irreversible
Rheumatoid Arthritis
-chronic inflammatory disorder
-more common in females
-autoimmune disease
1)body attacks itself eventually causing abnormal tissue
2) abnormal tissue erodes cartilage; scar tissue forms and connects the 2 bones which can ossify
ankylosis
when the scar tissue ossifies together from RA
Gouty Arthristis
-uric acid deposited in soft tissue joints
-genetic in males
common in base of big toe and bone ends fuse

avoid: liver, kidneys, and sardines