Ch 13

Why is the president's State of the Union address important?

a) It is often the only time that members of Congress get to question the president directly.

b) It is an opportunity for the president to set the legislative agenda by initiating proposals and directing public attention to the executive's goals.

c) It is an opportunity for the president to highlight the positive actions of the previous year.

d)It is the only time the president is constitutionally allowed to address Congress.

e)It determines the exact budget for the upcoming year.
The Office of Management and Budget and the Council of Economic Advisers are both parts of

a) the Cabinet.

b) the White House staff.

c) the Office of the Vice President.

the Executive Office of the President.

the Department of the Interior.
When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950,

a) Congress declared war before President Truman could formally request it.

b) Truman asked for a declaration of war and received one.

c) Truman asked for a declaration of war and was rebuffed.

Truman sent American troops to Korea without asking for a declaration of war.

Truman did not immediately send American troops to Korea because the Supreme Court ruled that it would be an unconstitutional use of presidential power.
According to political scientist Terry Moe, why does Congress suffer from a collective-action problem in the face of presidential power?

a) Individual members of Congress are more concerned with the substantive impact of presidential action on their constituents, rather than the general implications of presidential powers.

b) The House and the Senate must work in tandem, but constantly find any unity impossible.

c) The Constitution gives the president the ability to resist any congressional oversight not supported by two-thirds of members.

Members of Congress are often uninformed about the actions of the president.

The size and diversity of Congress make cooperation difficult.
An informal group of advisers to the president is often called the

a) Kitchen Cabinet.

b) plumbers.

c) round table.


good ole boys (despite the fact that many women have entered these ranks).
When Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops into Little Rock High School in 1957, it demonstrated that

a) the president may make unilateral use of the emergency powers to protect states against domestic disorder.

b) the president requires the federal court's approval before using troops in domestic disturbances.

c) the use of the president's emergency powers against domestic disorder necessitates a request by the governor to the affected state.

the president needs congressional authorization to use troops in both domestic and international situations.

the president can only use troops in domestic situations when the health and safety of children under the age of 18 is threatened.
The main political value of the vice president is to

a) bring the president votes in the election from a group or region that would not otherwise be a likely source of support.

b) draw negative attention away from the president during times of crisis.

c) give the president an institutional link to Congress.

act as the political party's chief fundraiser.

promote bipartisanship with members of the opposing political party.
As a means of managing the gigantic executive branch, presidents have increasingly come to rely upon the

a) Cabinet.

b) Executive Office of the President.

c) Kitchen Cabinet.

White House staff.

the Speaker of the House.
The formal group of presidential foreign policy advisers, established in 1947, is called the

a) State Department.

b) National Security Council.

c) Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Council on Foreign Relations.

War Council.
The National Security Council is composed of all of the following except the

a) vice president.

b) Speaker of the House.

c) secretary of defense.

attorney general.

secretary of state.
Which statement concerning secret agreements between the president and foreign nations is incorrect?

a) During the 1960s, Congress discovered that several presidents had made secret agreements with foreign nations without informing Congress.

b) The Supreme Court upheld the practice of secret agreements as part of the inherent authority of the president.

c) Congress passed a law requiring the White House to provide a list of every executive agreement signed by the president.

Presidents have always fully complied with Congress's reporting requirement.

One way for presidents to avoid complying with Congress's reporting requirement is to call secret executive agreements alternative names, such as "national security memorandum."
The first lady is an important resource for the president in his capacity as

a) head of government.

b) head of state.

c) commander in chief.

legislative initiator.

chief diplomat.
The ______ asserted that the president could send American troops into action abroad only in the event of a declaration of war or other statutory authorization by Congress, or if American troops were attacked or directly endangered.

War Powers Resolution of 1973

National Security Act of 1947

Neutrality Act of 1937

Boland Amendment of 1982

Arms Control Export Act of 1976
In undertaking the campaign against the Taliban in 2001, George W. Bush

sought and received a declaration of war from Congress.

sought but failed to receive a declaration of war from Congress.

sought and received congressional authorization for the bombing but not a declaration of war.

took action without approval from Congress.

launched military operations only after Congress passed a formal declaration of war that legally required the president to attack Afghanistan.
The decline of voting and political participation by Americans has which of the following effects?

It increases the powers of both the Congress and the president.

It weakens the power of both the president and Congress.

It enhances the power of the president while weakening Congress.

It increases the powers of Congress while weakening the president.

It increases the powers of state governments and weakens the federal government.
A president who claims to possess a mandate from the American electorate could arguably

claim the authority to increase taxes without the approval of Congress.

ignore all legislative mandates by Congress.

claim that voters have approved the agenda he campaigned on, and that Congress ought to approve it.

claim that voters have approved the president's agenda and that the state legislatures should unhesitatingly support it.

amend the Constitution without approval from Congress.
Which president began the era of greater presidential control over the budgeting process?

Woodrow Wilson

Franklin Roosevelt

Lyndon Johnson

Richard Nixon

Ronald Reagan
What is the primary constitutional task of the vice president, besides succeeding the president in case of death, resignation, or incapacitation

to serve as Speaker of the House of Representatives

to cast tie-breaking votes in the Senate

to act as a chief admiral of the U.S. Navy

to represent the president overseas

to run the day-to-day operations of the Executive Office of the President
When the White House directs administrative agencies to promulgate specific rules and regulations, this is called

regulatory review.

administrative oversight.


an executive agreement.

a mandate.
What happened when Harry Truman seized control of the nation's steel mills during the Korean War?

His action was upheld by the Supreme Court as a constitutional exercise of war powers.

Congress passed a bill shortly afterward that retroactively approved the steel mill seizures.

The Supreme Court declared his actions without basis in law or the Constitution.

The steel mills quickly capitulated to Truman's wartime demands, and the issue passed without further resolution.

Congress immediately passed a bill that legally prohibited the president from seizing the mills and Truman quickly rescinded his
In the early 1800s, the system of nominating presidential candidates that left the candidates beholden to their party's leaders in Congress was called

King Caucus.

party primaries.

congressional nominations.

presidential gerrymandering.

the spoils system.
Which of the following tactics did Franklin Roosevelt not use to forge a link between the executive office and the public?

speaking trips around the nation

radio-broadcast fireside chats

biweekly press conferences with reporters

designating the first White House press secretary

running extensive national television advertising campaigns
______ is the claim the electorate has given the winner of a presidential election a special authority to carry out her or his plans.

An inauguration


A mandate

An anointment

An executive order
The Constitution's framers believed that Congress's greatest prerogative would be its

war powers.

power of the purse.

oversight of the other two branches.

impeachment powers.

power of advice and consent.
The president must share foreign policy powers with

the Joint Chiefs of Staff.


the states.

the vice president.

the Department of Defense.
Richard Nixon claimed ______ when he refused to turn over secret White House tapes to congressional investigators.

presidential immunity

expressed powers

executive privilege

delegated authority

the Fifth Amendment
The State of the Union address is

required by a law passed by Congress in 1802 and renewed ever since.

requested by the president, and comity demands that his request is always accepted.

based on tradition, but was discontinued during the Great Depression and World War II.

mandated by the Constitution.

requested by the media and nearly always agreed to by the president and Congress.
______ powers are the most common form of constitutional powers possessed by the president.





A significant initiative set forth by Lyndon Johnson was

the New Deal.

the War on Terrorism.


the Great Society.

the Great Leap Forward.
What did the framers mean to accomplish by indirect election of the president?

to make a more independent and powerful chief executive

to bind the president to the will of the people

to make the president responsible to state and national legislatures

to create an imperial presidency to counter the power of Congress

to increase the strength and influence of political parties
The rise of national conventions to nominate the president led to the empowerment of what group?


state party leaders

the voters

the candidates

interest groups
The groups of advisers and analysts to the president are collectively called the


Kitchen Cabinet.

White House staff.

Executive Council of Advisers.

Department of State.
The president has the power to appoint which of the following positions?

all members of the State Department

all state Supreme Court justices

cabinet secretaries

members of the House of Representatives who resign before their term has expired

the Speaker of the House
The president's power to set the debate concerning public policy in Congress is called

an executive mandate.

an executive privilege.

a legislative initiative.

an executive order.

a presidential prerogative.
Executive agreements differ from formal treaties in that they

have been ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court.

must be approved by the U.S. Supreme Court but not by Congress.

do not have to be approved by the Senate.

do not have to be approved by the House.

are generally formulated at meetings of the United Nations.
What is required for Congress to override a presidential veto?

a majority of both houses of Congress

two-thirds of both houses of Congress

three-fourths of both houses of Congress

a unanimous vote of both houses of Congress

A president's veto cannot be overridden unless it concerns the budget, in which case it requires a three-fourths of both houses.
The Environmental Protection Agency was created in 1970 by

an executive order.

congressional legislation.

a treaty with Canada and Mexico.

executive privilege.

a Supreme Court decision.
The goal of the War Powers Resolution was to

compel a congressional declaration of war for every large-scale military operation.

limit the ability of Congress to cut off funding for troops when the president sends them overseas without congressional approval.

limit the power of the president to commit American troops to military action without authorization from Congress.

end the Vietnam War.

give the president more freedom in determining when and where to deploy American military forces.
The ______ is the informal designation for the heads of the major federal government departments.

White House staff

Committee of Staff

presidential advisory committee


Executive Office of the President
According to separation of powers expert Louis Fisher, the powers of Congress have declined dramatically in which of the following areas?

national defense and the federal budget

the federal budget and intelligence management

law enforcement and oversight

national defense and environmental protection

health care and education
An executive order is

a rule or regulation issued unilaterally by the president, with the status of a law.

an emergency decree that is law only for the duration of a crisis or pending congressional approval.

a demand to Congress that it vote on a particular piece of legislation.

any act of the executive branch that does not have to be made public.

a decree issued by the president that requires the federal courts to hear a particular case regarding the Constitution.
What is the general tendency of a president's popularity?

Presidents usually begin with moderate ratings which move drastically up or down, depending on their success.

Presidents usually start out popular and decline over the next four years.

Presidents usually maintain the public approval ratings they had when entering office, unless there is an economic recession or international crisis.

Presidents usually begin very unpopular and increase their popularity significantly as their term in office continues.

No pattern has been discerned in presidential approval ratings.
The technique of popular mobilization dates back to the presidency of

Thomas Jefferson.

Ulysses Grant.

Theodore Roosevelt.

Franklin Roosevelt.

Andrew Johnson.
Which first lady was the first to seek and win public office on her own?

Dolly Madison

Eleanor Roosevelt

Betty Ford

d) Hillary Clinton

Laura Bush
The last time Congress exercised its constitutional power to declare war was in





In United States v. Nixon, the Supreme Court

impeached Nixon.

allowed Nixon to withhold secret tapes from Congress.

required Nixon to turn over secret tapes to Congress.

reinstated the independent prosecutor fired by Nixon.

ruled that Nixon must resign from office in order to avoid criminal charges.
The president's position as head of state is defined in the Constitution by all of the following powers except





When are the president's partisan ties most important?
Question options:

in winning support from public opinion

in raising campaign funds

in dealing with Congress on legislative matters

in making executive appointments

in negotiating treaties and executive agreements
After the president and vice president, which office is next in the line of succession?

Speaker of the House

Senate majority leader

Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

secretary of state

attorney general
A signing statement is

an announcement the president makes about his interpretation of a congressional enactment he is signing into law.

an announcement made by a presidential candidate when formally accepting his or her party's nomination.

an announcement made by the president and the leader of a foreign country immediately following an executive agreement.

an announcement the president is required to make any time he issues an executive order.

a decree issued by Congress that demands the president sign a congressional enactment into law immediately.
Which of the following derives its greatest source of influence from the support of civil society?

the president


the judiciary

the bureaucracy

state governments
The president's delegated powers come from

the Constitution.


the states.

the president's party.

the Supreme Court.
Federal executive agencies do each of the following in implementing legislation except

follow specific guidelines and standards established by Congress.

interpret the intent of Congress.

promulgate rules based on the legislation.

seek advisory opinions from the federal courts as to the constitutionality of the rules.

issues order to groups and individuals designed to impel conformity with the law.
When the president infers powers from the "rights, duties, and obligations" of the presidency, these are called

delegated powers.

necessary and proper powers.

inherent powers.

war powers.

expressed powers.
According to the text, what are the three most common ways for a president to expand his base of power?

party support, popular mobilization, and administrative control

congressional mandate, judicial appointments, and constitutional amendments

referendums, initiatives, and litigation

fund-raising, advertising, and logrolling

gerrymandering, appropriations, and oversight of state governments
The Executive Office of the President (EOP) was established

under George Washington in 1790.

under Andrew Jackson in 1829.

under Franklin Roosevelt in 1939.

under Lyndon Johnson in 1965.

under Bill Clinton in 1993.
Which of the following attributes did the framers intend for the office of the president to possess?



extensive flexibility

unrestrained power

The turning point in American politics toward a president-centered government came about during the administration of

Andrew Jackson.

Abraham Lincoln.

Franklin Roosevelt.

Richard Nixon.

Ronald Reagan.
In order to get around the need for Senate approval of treaties, many contemporary presidents have made us of ______ in foreign affairs.


international protocols

executive immunity

executive agreements

bypass agreements
The power to declare war is given to whom under the Constitution?

the president

the Senate

both houses of Congress

the Senate, with the approval of the president

the Department of Defense