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What does febrile mean?


What does the Widal Reaction screen for?

Typhoid fever

What is mixed with patient serum in Widal reaction

Brucella and Salmonella

Why is Widal Reaction no longer used

Poor sensitivity and specificity

Weil-Felix reaction gets antigens from

Proteus related rickettsial antibodies

Gram stain of Brucella Abortus

GNR intracellular

Where can you get Brucella Abortus

Zoonoses, pigs, cows and dogs

Signs and symptoms of Brucella Abortus

Malaise, consistent fever, mental changes, fatigue, chills

What is the titer that suggests infection of Brucella


What is the method of Choice for brucella-specific IgM


Francisella Tularensis gram stain

GNR extracellular

What does Francisella Tularensis do to skin

Penetrate skin due to fact that it is invasive

How does capsule add to virulence to Francisella Tularensis

resist phagocytosis

How is francisella tularensis spread?

zoonoses, rodents

Signs and symptoms of Francisella Tularensis

High fever, pneumonia, headache, lymphadenopathy, granulomatous lesions

What happens in antibody activity after infection of Francisella Tularensis

IgM, IgA, and IgG persist for years after infection

How is Francisella Tularensis detected

EIA: most sensitive

Salmonella Species Gram Stain


What is special about S. Typhi?

more likely to systemically invade the body and cause typhoid fever

How is Salmonella spread?

Entrance into the bloodstream after infection; transmitted by chronic carriers of S. Typhi

Signs and Symptoms

Asymptomatic is most common; fever, headache, prostration, splenomegaly, and leukopenia

Is relapse in typhoid fever possible


Kauffman and white classification

classification in antigen types.

O antigen

polysaccharides in the lipopolysaccharide of the bacterial outer membrane

H antigen

polysaccharides associated with flagella

VI antigen

enhanced virulence of strains that produce this antigen, associated with bacterial capsule

Causitive agents of Paratyphoid fever

Salmonella paratyphi A; Salmonella sedai
Salmonella paratyphi B; Salmonella choleraesuis

signs and symptoms of paratyphoid fever

fever, increased titer of antibodies

Diagnosis for virulent salmonella

Antibodies to Vi antigen of S. typhi used to screen for typhoid carriers

Rickettsial Diseases Gram stain



Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

How is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever spread


treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

large doses of Tetracycline

Strain of Rickettsia that causes Epidemic typhus

R. Prowazekii

how is the epidemic typhus spread?


Endemic Typhus strain of Rickettsia

R. Typhi

How is Endemic Typhus spread


Scrub typhus strain of Rickettsia

R. tsutsugamushi

Scrub typhus is spread by


Rickettsia (Q fever group) is caused by

Coxiella burnetti

how is Rickettsia (Q fever group) spread


3 Cardinal features of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

fever, rash, history of tick bite or exposure

Immunologic Manifestation of Rickettsial Diseases

Antibodies appear in 7-10 days; specific cell-mediated immune response important in immunity to rickettsiae

Important to remember about titers for Rickettsial Disease

Lower titer= exposure to organism but no symptoms

Tests for Rickettsial Diseases

Weil-Felix reaction; Direct immunofluorescence used to confirm; complement fixation and latex agglutination available

What are Febrile agglutinin

antibodies produced in response to a variety of different pathogenic organisms

which phenomenon is associated to Febrile agglutinin testing


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