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Immunology IR 6

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What does febrile mean?
Fever
What does the Widal Reaction screen for?
Typhoid fever
What is mixed with patient serum in Widal reaction
Brucella and Salmonella
Why is Widal Reaction no longer used
Poor sensitivity and specificity
Weil-Felix reaction gets antigens from
Proteus related rickettsial antibodies
Gram stain of Brucella Abortus
GNR intracellular
Where can you get Brucella Abortus
Zoonoses, pigs, cows and dogs
Signs and symptoms of Brucella Abortus
Malaise, consistent fever, mental changes, fatigue, chills
What is the titer that suggests infection of Brucella
1:80-1:160
What is the method of Choice for brucella-specific IgM
EIA
Francisella Tularensis gram stain
GNR extracellular
What does Francisella Tularensis do to skin
Penetrate skin due to fact that it is invasive
How does capsule add to virulence to Francisella Tularensis
resist phagocytosis
How is francisella tularensis spread?
zoonoses, rodents
Signs and symptoms of Francisella Tularensis
High fever, pneumonia, headache, lymphadenopathy, granulomatous lesions
What happens in antibody activity after infection of Francisella Tularensis
IgM, IgA, and IgG persist for years after infection
How is Francisella Tularensis detected
EIA: most sensitive
Salmonella Species Gram Stain
GNR
What is special about S. Typhi?
more likely to systemically invade the body and cause typhoid fever
How is Salmonella spread?
Entrance into the bloodstream after infection; transmitted by chronic carriers of S. Typhi
Signs and Symptoms
Asymptomatic is most common; fever, headache, prostration, splenomegaly, and leukopenia
Is relapse in typhoid fever possible
yes
Kauffman and white classification
classification in antigen types.
O antigen
polysaccharides in the lipopolysaccharide of the bacterial outer membrane
H antigen
polysaccharides associated with flagella
VI antigen
enhanced virulence of strains that produce this antigen, associated with bacterial capsule
Causitive agents of Paratyphoid fever
Salmonella paratyphi A; Salmonella sedai
Salmonella paratyphi B; Salmonella choleraesuis
signs and symptoms of paratyphoid fever
fever, increased titer of antibodies
Diagnosis for virulent salmonella
Antibodies to Vi antigen of S. typhi used to screen for typhoid carriers
Rickettsial Diseases Gram stain
GNCB
RMSF is
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
How is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever spread
ticks
treatment of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
large doses of Tetracycline
Strain of Rickettsia that causes Epidemic typhus
R. Prowazekii
how is the epidemic typhus spread?
Lice
Endemic Typhus strain of Rickettsia
R. Typhi
How is Endemic Typhus spread
Fleas
Scrub typhus strain of Rickettsia
R. tsutsugamushi
Scrub typhus is spread by
chiggers
Rickettsia (Q fever group) is caused by
Coxiella burnetti
how is Rickettsia (Q fever group) spread
Arthropods
3 Cardinal features of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
fever, rash, history of tick bite or exposure
Immunologic Manifestation of Rickettsial Diseases
Antibodies appear in 7-10 days; specific cell-mediated immune response important in immunity to rickettsiae
Important to remember about titers for Rickettsial Disease
Lower titer= exposure to organism but no symptoms
Tests for Rickettsial Diseases
Weil-Felix reaction; Direct immunofluorescence used to confirm; complement fixation and latex agglutination available
What are Febrile agglutinin
antibodies produced in response to a variety of different pathogenic organisms
which phenomenon is associated to Febrile agglutinin testing
Prozone