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Ch 7 reading q's
Terms in this set (19)
Newton's First Law
Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external
force is applied to it.
Newton's Second Law
Momentum equals mass times velocity: M = mv.
Newton's Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite
Three types of force:
compression, tensile, sheer
Characteristics of an open kinetic chain:
Limb not fixed, force is across the limb, one moving link is
not affected by the position of the other joints.
Characteristics of a closed kinetic chain:
Limb is fixed, force is through the limb, the extremity has been loaded secondary to weight bearing with frictional and ground reaction forces to affect joint movement. All
links are affected by each other.
Every change in the form and function of a bone or of their function alone is followed by certain definitive changes in their internal architecture and equally definite secondary
alteration in their external conformation, in accordance with mathematical laws.
bone deposits are laid down in response to repeated trauma to an area
the absorption of liquid
by a solid or gel, which occurs in the body via the
compression and release of pressure
When two adjacent bones have maximum contact between the two surfaces and all ligaments are taut, the joint is considered to be...
This muscle is less effective at performing a specific motion, but still has some mechanical advantage.
Assistant mover (Example: Teres major in a lat pull-down)
When two muscles have a common joint action but also have a joint action that opposes each other. The synergy occurs during the common joint action.
Synergist (Example: Pectoralis
major and latissimus dorsi in internal rotation of
A muscle or set of muscles that steady or support a joint so another muscle or set of muscles can move a portion of the body.
Stabilizer (Example: The rotator cuff during a lateral raise.)
______ muscles run parallel to the line of pull of the muscle. The fiber force runs in the same direction as the musculature. This spindle-shaped fiber has a high potential for high amounts of shortening and high velocity movements of the body.
Fusiform muscles. (Example: biceps
brachii, sartorius, and brachialis)
_____ muscles have fibers that run diagonally with respect to a tendon running through the muscle.
They are generally feather-shaped, as the fascicles are short and run at an angle. Since the fibers of the penniform muscle run at an angle relative to the line of pull of the muscle, the fiber force is a different direction than the muscle force
Penniform muscles (flexor pollicis longus,
tibialis posterior, semimembranosus, and extensor
_____ muscles consist of two rows of oblique muscle fibres, facing in opposite diagonal directions, converging on a central tendon. (Like a feather)
Bipennate muscle is stronger than both unipennate muscle and fusiform muscle, due to a larger physiological cross-sectional area. Bipennate muscle shortens less than unipennate muscle but develops greater tension when it does, translated into greater power but less range of motion
_____ are characterized by a long angular shape, with smaller, longer bones; narrow shoulders and hips; and slender upper arms, thighs, forearms, and calves
_____ are more muscular, with wider shoulders in relation to hips; the wrists and ankles are relatively large with a fairly thick neck
_____ are thicker, with short thin necks relative to their shoulders. The upper arms and thighs are large compared to the forearms and calves. The wrists and ankles are small compared to the elbows and knees
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