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Terms in this set (15)
Trading Post Empire
16th Century. Built initially by the Portuguese, these were used to control the trade routes by forcing merchant vessels to call at fortified trading sites and pay duties there. Based on control of trade rather than subjects. Portugal created this in the Indian ocean world but by 1600 it was in steep decline.
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
British East India Company
Created when the British began economic interest in India in the 1600's. They set up trading posts at Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. They considered India as the most valuable of all of their colonies
17th to 19th c. (1603—1868), or Tokugawa bakufu, or Edo bakufu, was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo castle until the Meiji Restoration.
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. New people arrived all the time, attracted by the silver. its wealthy lived in luxury and the native american workers lived in horrendous conditions.
16th-19th c. the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade. 1.8 million died during this voyage. deposited 10.7 million of them in the americas. the slave trade transformed societies of all involved. within africa some were strengthened, some were corrupted, and some were weakened. the slaves of course were victimized beyond imagination.
Kingdom of Dahomey arose in early 18th c. African communities in which African authorities sought to manage the slave trade in their own interest, take advantage of new commercial opportunities. benin - restricted slave trade and forabade male export altogether. dahomey - govt soon depended on slave trade
"How did the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, and British Initiatives in Asia differ from one another?"
Portuguese: established military bases in key locations through violence and created a trading post empire. They aimed to control commerce not territory and ended up selling shipping services, carrying Asian goods to Asian ports.
Spanish: They gained control over the Philippines through gifts and favors to the local chiefs. They used Catholicism as well to control subjects which led to a bloodless takeover. They had total control over the territory and silver production.
Dutch: Controlled shipping and production of cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, & mace. seized control of a number of SE Asian spice producing islands like Indonesia. Forced people to sell only to the Dutch and destroyed crops if they refused. Well financed and commercially sophisticated with private trading companies through merchant investors.
British: Excluded from Dutch spice monopoly so they fell back in India. Could not take over b/c the Mughal empire was so strong so they got permission to secure trading bases w/ substantial payments and bribes. Pepper and other spices were important but they focused more on Indian cotton textiles, a big demand in Europe.
"What was the world historical importance of the silver trade?"
Silver "went around the world and made the world go round" Bolivia and Japan increased the silver supply. It also connected America & Asia and initiated a web of pacific commerce.
In what sense was fur a global commodity?
In Europe there was a diminished supply of fur so it was in high demand. Fur integrated N America and Siberia into world economy and they increased the supply and significance. The little ice age also increased demand and fur enhanced the standard of living. For Native Americans the fur trade allowed them to acquire Europeans goods and in Russia they traded fur for silver. Russian taxes were also payable in furs.
"What explains the rise of the Atlantic slave trade?
Sugar was a huge cause of the Atlantic slave trade. the Europeans established many sugar plantations in the Mediterranean . the danger of the work, the absence of wage workers, and limitations attached to serf labor led to slavery as a source of labor. The Slavic supply of slaves was cut off when the ottoman empire seized Constantinople. native Americans quickly perished from European diseases, and marginal Europeans were Christians and so exempt from slavery which left Africans as the source of slaves. they had immunity to tropical and European diseases as well as agricultural skills.
"In what different ways did the Atlantic slave trade transform African societies?"
Created new transregional linkages. africa became a permanent part of an interacting atlantic world. slowed africa's growth, economic stagnation resulted as well as political disruption. only a few benefited and did not invest in african societies. some areas like ghana were insecure, with slave raids happening at random. benin was more successful by expanding exports opportunites and restricting slave trade. Race was also transformed in the americas with new 'races' forming from unions between africans and native americans or spanish.
What is the significance of the Battle of Lepanto?
The Catholics won against the Muslim empire. All Christians even Protestants and different churches celebrated because they disliked the Muslim ottoman empire. This led to the ottomans losing control of the Mediterranean.
What was the significance of the Siege of Vienna in 1683?
The ottomans return land to Poland, Hungary, dalmatian coast, and peloponnesus. It was the beginning of stagnation and contraction. In 1683 a demoralizing defeat of the Turks, which signaled the reversal of their fortunes
How did the Palace of Versailles reveal Louis XIV's agenda as absolutist king?
He was trying to prevent a centralized government from developing by keeping nobles away from their regions. He wanted to move the power away from them and towards himself.
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