RT 124 Racemic Epinephrine and Integrated Cardiopulmonary Pharmacology
Terms in this set (38)
What is the generic name of Vaponephrine?
What is the Trade name for Racemic Epinephrine?
What is the classification of Vaponephrine?
-Sympathomimetic, Bronchodilator, Adrenergic
What are the receptors for vaponephrine?
-Alpha (moderate), Beta 1 (moderate) , Beta 2 moderate
What is the duration of vaponephrine?
Liquid unit dose/ SVN
.1 - .5ml of a 2.25 % solution mixed with 2.5 ml NS
What is vaponephrine used for
-vasoconstriction property (alpha effect)
-croup, post extubation stridor, upper airway swelling
-Stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
-Inhibits the sympathetic nervous system
-Stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system
-Inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system
What are the major components of the CNS and PNS?
Brain: like CPU on computer
Spinal cord: Main branch which transmits message to and from brain
Peripheral nervous system
Comprised of all nerves outside of brain and spinal cord
Mediates between CNS and external /internal body environments
What is the difference between afferent (sensory) and efferent(motor) nerves
-Afferent Nerves(Sensory): Sensory information is carried from all part of the brain. Respond to heat, light, pressure and pain
-Efferent nerves(Motor): Brain can send messages via these pathways to have various effects on the body. Respond to voluntary and conscious control(eX: walking, lifting, pushing)
Peripheral nervous system
Connects the body, neurologically speaking with efferent and afferent pathways
What is the difference between the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system?
-Part of the peripheral nervous system
-somatic nervous system: Controls skeletal muscle during voluntary movement. Control of the muscles used to turn the pages of this power point presentation
-Autonomic nervous system: Controls the automatic, involuntary or unconscious part of the PNS. Constriction of your pupil when bright light shines in eyes
What is the difference between the sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system?
Also called the craniosacral system
Effects are localized and discrete
Essential to life
Concerns with daily body upkeep"sleep and eat system"
"sitting in class, listening to lecture"
Also called the thoracolumber system
Effects are diffuse and widespread
Not essential for life
Alert system for stressful situation "fight or flight.""response if there is a real fire in class"
Autonomic Nervous system
-Major organ systems with ANS control:
Specialized cardiac muscles controlling heart rate
Smooth muscles found in the airways, blood vessels, reproductive tract and GI tract
-Eating a hamburger is under somatic control(voluntary) but after you swallow the autonomic(involuntary) system takes over
-Under normal conditions these two systems(sympathetic and parasympathetic) work together in a coordinating though opposing manner to maintain a normal balance within the body
-These two systems produce opposite effects
Sympathetic causes bronchodilation and increased heart rate
Parasympathetic causes bronchoconstriction and decreased heart rate.
-When this system is stimulated or dominates:
Body prepares for maximal exertion, "Fight or Flight"
when personally threatened you fight or run
Your body will increase in HR, BP, blood sugar and respiratory rate
Your airways will dilate
You have rush of adrenaline (epi)
-When this system dominates
Body functions slow down
Rest and digest system
Decrease in HR, BP, RR
Overstimulation of this system is known as the SLUD syndrome/Drug OD - Nerve gas salivation
What is the sympathetic effect on the heart, lungs, eyes, GI tract and urinary tract?
Increased HR and BP
Increased Blood sugar
Vascular constiction (pulmonary)
What is the parasympathetic effect of the heart, lung, eyes, GI tract and urinary tract?
Decreased HR and BP
Decreases blood sugar
Vascular dilation (pulmonary)
Briefly describe how bronchodilation occurs via the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic system
Bronchodilation is turning on in sympathetic nervous system and turning off in the parasympathetic nervous system
What is the primary neurotransmitter at the postganglionic synapse for the sympathetic nervous system
Epinephrine(smooth muscle bronchodilation)
What is the primary neurotransmitter at the postganglionic synapse for the parasympathetic nervous system
Acetycholine (smooth muscle bronchoconstriction)
-Transmission of messages to nerves
-A chemical substance that is released into synapses after an electrical transmission has occurred
-The neurotransmitter controls nerve impulses
-The neurotransmitter will then bind to the receptor to cause an action
-This action can be aborted
-Drugs which stimulate its release are known as cholinergics or parasympathomimetics
-Drugs which block the release are known as anticholinergics (Atrovent) or parasympatholytics
-Atrovent works by blocking the nervous system that when stimulated causes bronchoconstriction
-It effects muscarinic receptors
-Drugs which stimulate its release are known as adrenergic or beta agonist (Remember Albuterol) or sympathomimetics
-Drugs which block the release are known as antiadrenergic
-Albuterol works by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system that causes bronchodilation
-It effects alpha and Beta receptors
-Chemicals which are structurally similar to epinephrine are called catecholmines
-These drugs which cause bronchodilation are inactivated by enzymes
-Two important enzymes which inactivates epinephrine are :
Monamine oxidase (MAO)
Catechol O methy transferase (COMT)
What is the primary response of the following receptors: alpha,
Alpha: causes vasoconscriction
What is the primary response of the following receptors: Beta1,
Beta 1: Increase Heart rate, Increased force of contraction, increased blood pressure
What is the primary response of the following receptors: Beta2
-Smooth and skeletal muscle relaxation
What is the primary response of the following receptors: muscarinic
What are some important characteristics of epinephrine?
-Potent catecholamine bronchodilator
-Stimulates both alpha and beta receptors
-Naturally occurring in the body
-Rapid onset, short duration
-metabolized by COMT
-Inhaled or subcutaneously or intravenous
-Treat patients with acute asthma (inhaled or sub q)
-Used as a cardiac stimulant (IV)
-Used to control hypersensitivity reactions (bee sting)
What are some conditions that are treated by sympathomimetic bronchodilators
-Aslthma and exercise -induced asthma
-Acute or chronic bronchitis
What are some general side effects associated with sympathomimetic bronchodilators?
-Specific to Beta 2
Main indication: relaxation of airway smooth muscle
-Reverse bronchospasm and improve airflow
-clinically used to reverse bronchoconstriction
Bronchodilation is caused by:
-Stimulation of Beta 2 receptors located on bronchial smooth muscle
-A few of these drugs can also stimulate alpha and beta receptors
-All are catecholamines or derivatives of catecholamines( a group of similar compounds having sympathomimetic action)
-Synthetic form of epinephrine
-frequently used for nebulization
-Action : same as epinephrine, both alpha and beta stimulation
-2.25% solution .1-.5 ml mixed with NS
-clinically used on patients with croup, post extugation stridor, upper airway edema,
-Protect from light don't use if brown or cloudy
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