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Earth Science chapter 1-5
Terms in this set (64)
Describe why fishing has changed at Apo Island, and the direct and indirect effects on peoples lives.
Fishing on the island has dramatically improved over the years. While forty years ago the fishing was so extreme that it caused a decline in the fish number and quality of fishing, now the fish are abundant and jobs plenty from fish sanctuary and regulations. The aggressive fishing of the past wiped out the coral reef community, so they sectioned off a no fishing zone and banned harmful techniques such as cyanide and dynamite to stun fish. This helped the whole coastal area of the island have better yields and also increased jobs both through fishing and protection of the area.
What is the idea of "ecological services"? Give an example
Ecological services are processes of materials, such as clean water, energy, climate regulation, and nutrient cycling, provided by ecosystems. Provisioning, supporting, and regulating are all forms of services. And example of these services, specifically provisioning, is the purification of water through sand, rock, or plant within a system to provide drinkable and useable water the animals and other facets that require it.
Distinguish between a hypothesis and a theory
A hypothesis is a testable explanation, while a theory is either the end product of an experiment OR the untested pondering of the public, depending on which you might be alluding too. While in life we consider a theory to be the guess before the hypothesis that is unsupported and starts the idea of an experiment, according to the scientific world the theory is the well tested conclusion to many repeated experiments from a hypothesis that is as close to a fact as they are comfortable announcing.
Describe the steps in the scientific method
The scientific method has five essential steps. First comes observation, the thing that brings the idea of the experiment, next the hypothesis which is a testable explanation that one comes up with, then you must develop a test to prove your hypothesis and though this predict the result. Next you must gather data and preform the experiment so you can finally interpret the results and see if the hypothesis is correct, if it is not you must repeat the process with new hypothesis and predictions.
What is probability? Give an example.
Probability is the likelihood that a situation, a condition, or an event will occur. It does not tell you what will happen, but instead what is likely to happen. If you have a 20 percent chance of catching a cold, then you cold be 20 out of 100 to catch the cold, but you are more likely not to get a cold then you are to get one.
Why are scientists generally skeptical? Why do tests require replication?
Scientists are skeptical until there is enough evidence to support a claim. A test must be able to be replicated so if there are any questions the same result can be reached, or a previous result can be challenged and proved wrong. If the test was not replicable there is no proving it, because it would yield a different result each time.
What is the first step in critical thinking, according to table 1.4?
The first step on critical thinking is "What is the purpose of my thinking?"
Distinguish between utilitarian conservation and biocentric preservation. Name two environmental leaders associated with each of these philosophies.
The difference between utilitarian conservation and biocentric preservation is who the resources are for. Utilitarian conservation embodies the idea that the resources are for the people here and now and should be used in a wise manor, while biocentric preservation is the idea that all things have a right to home and resource, this preserves the land and biomes more and is longer term.
Theodor Roosevelt, Gifford Pinchot, John Muir and Aldo Leopold are associated with these ideas.
Why do some experts regard water as the most critical natural resource for the twenty-first century?
It is seen as critical because 1.1 billion lack access to safe water, pollution contributing to death about 15 million, and 40 percent of the the pollution in the world live with demands exceeding supplies. This makes it a critical resource because it is so essential to the population, and the lack of it results in death.
Where in figure 1.6a does the most dramatic warming occur?
Temperatures are exacted to rise in the northern winter months.
Describe some signs of progress in overcoming global environmental problems.
In many ways there are signs of environmental progress. The population is decreasing and stabilizing from an increase of 5 to 2.45, the health of the population has disease being eradicated and life expectancy increasing, renewable energy is being accepted and funded and cost reducing, education is increasing with literacy and girl education which drive down birthrates,. Deforestation is decreasing in Asia, and 13.5% of the worlds land is now protected, marine is monitored and reserves are established.
What is the link between poverty and environmental quality?
Poverty often is associated with poor environmental quality because they cannot maintain proper sanitation to preserve water, do not have access to proper nutrition, and cannot afford to invest in renewable energy. In reference to preservation methods, the development of education and other programs also increase environmental movements, improving poverty stricken areas become combined with improving the environment.
Define sustainability and sustainable development.
Sustainability is the search for ecological stability and human progress that can last over the long term and sustainable development is meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet own needs.
What are the two most important nutrients causing eutrophication in the Chesapeake Bay?
Nitrogen and phosphorus from farms, livestock manure, urban streets, fertilizers, septic systems, and discharge along with air pollution, cause the elements that are essential to life become too much for the area leading to eutrophication.
What are systems and how do feedback loops regulate them?
Systems are networks if interdependent components and processes, with materials and energy flowing from one component to another. Feedback loops enable to system to run in a loop, though positive (increasing process) and negative (diminishing process) loops the system can create and destroy the items within the system to keep everything healthy alive and at an equilibrium. This makes it so, for example, the population of an animal can be produced and thrive on its food source, but then this diminishes the food source making it so not as many animals can be produced and controls over population then it repeats.
Your body contains vast numbers of carbon atoms. How is it possible that some of these carbons may have been part of the body of a prehistoric creature?
Because carbon chains make up the backbone of organic compounds and living organisms, and they contribute to the formation of DNA which is passed down from our ancestors it is possible that these living things shared similar carbon make ups as us.
List six unique properties of water. Describe, briefly, how each of these properties makes water essential to life as we know it.
The six properties of water are unique, they are that: Water molecules are polar, they are the only inorganic liquid that occurs in nature under normal conditions at temperatures suitable for life, the molecules are cohesive sticking together tenaciously, it is expands when crystalizes, it has a high heat of vaporization, and it has a high specific heat. The characteristics make it so ecological cycles move materials and energy making life possible. Without water no system or person could survive.
What is DNA, and why is it important?
DNA is deoxyribonucleic acid that is composed of four kinds (adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine) of nucleotides made of five carbon sugar chains that are important for signaling molecules to carry information, and a source of energy. DNA store and express genetic information that make a organism turn out the way we see them, without DNA the instructions for growth and development would be absent.
The oceans store a vast amount of heat, but this huge reservoir of energy is of little use to humans. Explain the difference between high-quality and low-quality energy.
Low quality energy is diffused, dispersed in low temperatures and is difficult to gather and use for productiveness such as the ocean. High-quality energy is intense easy to use forms of energy such as high-voltage electrical energy.
In the biosphere, matter follows circular pathways, while energy flows in a linear fashion. Explain.
Because of the laws of thermodynamics, the linear flow of energy is explained. The molecules and atoms cycle endlessly, but energy is used and lessens in usefulness with each process, while it can never be destroyed according to the first law, it can dissipate until it is no longer useful and must recharge and regain potential.
Which wavelengths do our eyes respond to, and why? (refer to fig. 2.13.) About how long are short ultraviolet wavelengths compared to microwave lengths?
Our eyes respond to visible-light because that is what they are most sensitive to. There are about 5 nm separating the length of ultraviolet wavelengths from microwave wavelengths, ultraviolet are closer to the end (getting longer)of the short wavelength range close to visible light, and microwaves are close to the very end of the long range farer away from the visible light.
Where do extremophiles live? How do they get the energy they need for survival?
Extremophiles live deep in the earth's crust, or deep o the ocean floor. They get their energy for survival from chemosynthesis, extracting energy from inorganic chemical compounds.
Ecosystems require energy to function. From where does most of this energy come? Where does it go?
Most energy comes from the sun. The energy from the sun gets captured by plants, primary producers, that then feed the life cycle of earth.
How do green plants capture energy, and what do they do with it?
Green plants capture energy by photosynthesis, they do this through chlorophyll capturing, and produces sugars to inspire cellular respiration that gives off oxygen for other animals in the cycle.
Define the terms species, population, and biological community.
Species: all organisms of the same kind that are genetically similar enough to breed in nature and produce live, fertile offspring.
Population: all the members of a species living in a given area at the same time.
Biological community: populations of organisms living and interacting in a particular area.
Why are big, fierce animals rare?
There is a lot of competition for the top trophic level, and the numbers of big fierce predators are rare compared to the lower levels of omnivores and decomposers etc.
Most ecosystems can be visualized as a pyramid with many organisms in the lowest trophic levels ad only a few individuals at the top. Give an example of an inverted numbers pyramid.
One example of an inverted pyramid is that of one that has hyperparasites at the top in large numbers, with parasites following, herbivores which they latch on to under that and finally a producer at the bottom. Any pyramid with more top dogs then producers would be inverted, and while rare, they do occur.
What is the ratio of human-caused carbon releases into the atmosphere shown in figure 2.18 compared to the amount released by terrestrial respiration?
7 gig tons of humans versus hundreds released by terrestrial processes, however, each terrestrial process is exchanged with roughly the same amount being released and restored (100 Gt of respiration replenished by 100 Gt from photosynthesis) but with human carbon emissions not being equaled out and just going into the atmosphere.
Explain how tolerance limits to environmental factors determine distribution of a highly specialized species such as the saguaro cactus.
Each plant has limits that make them adapt to certain regions and conditions, the saguaro cactus has a low cold tolerance and so reproduction is limited when the temperatures drop and adults get frost damage. These tolerance limits make it so specialized species are only distributed in the areas they can handle, and also induce population control.
What s allopatric speciation? Sympatric speciation?
Allopatric speciation is speciation that occurs when populations are geographically separated. Sympatric speciation is speciation that occurs in on geographical location.
Define selective pressure and explain how it can alter traits in a species.
Selective pressure is the factors that make certain mutations advantageous. These adaptations alter traits to favor these advantages, such as the Geospiza fortis adapting larger beaks to open larger seeds.
Explain the three types of survivorship curves shown in figure 3.23
There are three types of survivorship curves, forest there is most individuals saying late in life, then individuals dying at uniform rates, and finally most individuals dying at a young age.
Describe several types of symbiotic relationships. Give an example of a symbiotic relationship that benefits both species.
Mutulism: In many cases, both species benefit from the interaction, Parasitic: an association between two different species where the symbiont benefits and the host is harmed, Commensalism is an association between two different species where one species enjoys a benefit, and the other is not significantly affected. Flowers and bees are symbiotic, helping both parts, the bee gets the pollen and the flower gets pollenated. Human and dog are symbiotic, with the dog receiving food and care. Sea anemones and clown fish are also symbiotic, the sea anemones providing protection.
What is coevolution? Give an example, either in a predatory relationship or a symbiotic relationship.
Coevolution is the close adaptation of two species. The gazelle and cheetah are an example of this. The chaeta can outrun the gazelle, but the gazelle has the stamina to out endure the chaeta.
Competition for a limited quantity of resources occurs in all ecosystems. This competition can be interspecific or intraspecific. Explain some of the ways an organism might deal with these different types of competition.
These types of competition, both within a species and with other species, cause them to shift use of common resources. With warblers intraspecific competition they focus on different areas of the same tree, and interspecific different areas of a geographical area.
Explain the idea of K-selected and r-selected species. Give an example of each.
R-selected species are species that need to have a high reproduction rate to overcome their high mortality rate such as dandelions. K-selected species adapt for slower growth near the carrying capacity of the environment like elephants that aren't mature until 18 and have a long gestation time.
Describe the process of succession that occurs after a forest fire destroys an existing biological community. Why may periodic fire be beneficial to a community?
After a forest fire secondary succession occurs and a new community develops from the biological legacy of the previous one. Periodic fire causes the disturbance needed for new species to colonize and replace previous, and results in needed ecological development and facilitation.
Which world ecosystems are most productive in terms of biomass (fig. 3.28)? which are least productive? What units are used in this figure to quantify biomass accumulation?
Estuaries, coral reefs, and tropical rainforest are the most productive in terms of biomass, and Deserts and open oceans are least. Kcal/m2/year is the measurement for the biomass accumulation.
What do ecologists mean by the term resilience? In what ways might diversity contribute to resilience in an ecosystem?
This is used to define how something can resist or recover quickly from disturbance. The more complexity and diversity a community has the more resilience the community would have. Species can fill in gaps of high stress others might be enduring.
About how many years of human existence passed before the world population reached its first billion? What factors restricted population before that time, and what factors contributed to growth after that point?
It took 1800 years to reach the first billion humans, poor health, lack of food resources/production, and competition contributed to this. Things that contributed to the extreme growth included increased communication from sailing, trade, agricultural and health care development, and power resources.
Describe the pattern of human population growth over the past 200 years. What is the shape of the growth curve (recall chapter 3)?
Our population has been steadily growing over the past 200 years, aside from a couple spans of disaster cutting population (great depression etc) and resembles, iJ curve of exponential growth
Define ecological footprint. How many more earths would it take if all of us tried to live at the same level of affluence as the average North American?
The consumption choices divided by the equivalent amount of land required producing goods and services is the ecological footprint of an area. It would take 3.5 more earths to sustain a population if they lived as North Americans.
Why do some economists consider human resources more important than natural resources on determining a country's future?
Economists, at least some, consider humans to be more important resources over natural resources because of the work they can do, while natural resources are not seen to necessary directly be affected by population growth. Humans use ingenuity to find new resources which makes them the most valuable.
In which regions of the world will most population growth occur during the twenty-first century? What conditions contribute to rapid population growth in these locations?
The highest population rates occur in places such as Sub-Saharan Africa and the middle east. Economics, politics, and civil unrest contribute to high birth rates, and lack of education limit contraceptives.
Define crude birth rate, total fertility rate, crude death rate, and zero population growth.
Crude birth rate is the number of births in a year, per thousand persons. The total fertility rate is the number of children born to an average woman in a population during her entire reproductive life. Crude death rate is are the number of deaths per thousand persons in a year. Finally zero population growth is when births plus immigration in a population ust equal deaths plus emigration.
What is the difference between life expectancy and life span? Why are they different?
Life expectancy is the average age that a newborn infant can be expected to attain in any given society, while life span is the oldest age which a species is known to survive. On average a life expectancy can be seen to mean if a society can support birth rates, and their health and sanitation of children, while a life span is a maximum and not always obtained.
What is the dependency ratio, and how might it affect the United States in the future?
The dependency ratio is the number of nonworking compared with working persons in a society. There are large numbers of nonworking retired and welfare in the US, and this effects their future because the younger have to support the larger older and it puts a strain on the dynamics, as well as people falling through the cracks because the working don't want to support the nonworking.
What factors increase or decrease people's desire to have babies?
Factors that increase family size include places that have high child mortality rates to insure a live child, low education and opportunity to birth control, the need to be looked after when older and little upward mobility to give status. The opposites are true for decreased family size, higher GDP and education rates influence a lower fertility rate due to contraceptive knowledge and security form the society to be taken care of later in life. Also in developed countries where women have jobs they are less likely to have children and more likely to focus on career.
Describe the conditions that lead to a demographic transition.
The conditions that lead to demographic transition include food shortages, malnutrition, lack of sanitation and medicine, accidents and other things associated with developing countries, along with the desire to move into more stable and wealthy conditions such as developed countries, this leads to demographic transition from pre-modern to urbanizing, to mature industrial and finally to post industrial where there is growing prosperity, urbanization, social reforms, and technological advancement.
Why did ecologists want to reintroduce wolves to Yellowstone Park? What goals did they have, and have their goals been achieved?
Ecologists wanted to reintroduce wolves to Yellowstone Park because of the sudden burst in elk and deer population. This boost in population led to overgrazing and overpopulation causing strain on the environment. Reintroducing the natural predator would regulate the environment again. Although it is not certain the turn around in environment and regaining of biodiversity is directly correlated with the reintroduction of the wolf, it did indeed occur and balance has been restored.
Describe nine major types of terrestrial biomes.
Tropical Rainforests- humid tropical regions supporting a complex and biologically rich biomes, they are warm and wet year-round.Tropical seasonal forests-drought tolerant forest that look brown and dormant in the dry season but burst into vivid green during rainy month they are dry most of the year but have periods of rain.
Tropical Savanna- these areas have rain fall, but not as much as forests. These lands are grasslands that are prone to fires.
Desert -Sparse but diverse area, with the animals very adapted to drought and extreme temperatures. Plants also adapt to temperatures.
Temperate grasslands- Diverse mix of grasses and flowing plants. Deep roots help retain water.
Temperate scrublands-This dry environments with shrubs trees and grass have a dry hot season and a cool wet winter. Drought resistant animals, such as jackrabbits, reside here in the land names chaparral.
Temperate forests-evergreen or deciduous, these forests are temperate or midlatitude that have a range of precipitation conditions. Deciduous forests have broad leaf forests that are found worldwide with plentiful rainfall. Coniferous forests they have moisture limited environments, frozen in winter and dry in summer. Needled leaves reside here and the wood is used frequently.
Boral forest-Conifers dominate in the mountainous areas with pine, hemlock, spruce, cedar, and fir trees. This area is cold and short frost-free seasons make it slow growing.
Tundra-an area that has freezing temperatures mostly has residing small hardy vegetation. High latitude and treeless, the tundra has only a few month growing time. Alpine and artic are both types of tundra.
Explain how climate graphs (as in fig.5.6) should be read.
The horizontal axis is to be read in reference of months, while the vertical in reference of rain fallen. The yellow shows when participation drop below temperatures showing dry months and the areas of blue are wet months where participation stay above temperatures.
Describe conditions under which coral reefs, mangroves, estuaries, and tide pools occur.
Due to Coastal environments these areas are enabled to occur because of the tendency for extreme diversity. These areas also provide nutrients to shoreline and habitats for many.
Throughout the central portion of North America is a large biome once dominated by grasses. Describe how physical conditions and other factors control this biome.
While grass use to be abundant due to its deep rooted nature allowing survival though drought periods, the practice of farmer due to rich soil from the dead leaves after a winter has stripped the grasslands and caused erosion as well as weed growth.
Explain the difference between swamps, marshes, and bogs.
Swamps-these are areas of wetlands accompanied by trees
Marshes-these areas are also wetlands lacking tree growth.
Bogs- these are areas that have intense water saturated groud and have dead vegetation (peat) in layers.
How do elevation (on mountains) and depth (in water) affect environmental conditions and life-forms?
Both temperature and pressure effect plant growth, and therefore the elevation and depth dictate what grows and lives in each area. In mountain areas of high elevation the plants are smaller and less abundant because of extreme temperatures and pressure, since there is less plants to nourish there are also less animals. In great depth there is a lack of plants due to the lack of sunlight, however, there is still a biological culture that feed off of dead material that sinks down.
Figure 5.15 shows chlorophyll (plant growth) in oceans and on land. Explain why green, photosynthesizing organisms occur in bands at the equator and along the edges of continents. Explain the very dark green areas and yellow/orange areas on the continents.
The equator has more sunlight year round, and photosynthesis requires this. Also water is warmer near coast areas of continents because the water is shallow and warms faster. Dark green indicated high biological productivity, and yellow orange areas are biologically inclined.
Define biodiversity and give three types of biodiversity essential in preserving ecological systems and functions.
Biodiversity is the variety of living things with unique productive characteristics and the complex ecological relationships that exist between them. There are three types that include genetically diverse, species diversity, and ecological diversity.
What is a biodiversity "hot spot"? List several of them (see fig. 5.22)
Hot spots are large concentrations of species and biodiversity that are unique. Areas such as central Chili, Madagascar, New Zealand, Sundaland, Caribbean islands and many more are hot spots.
How do humans benefit from biodiversity?
The two main benefits of biodiversity are medical and aesthetics. Many medicinal plants have been founded in hot spots, and the aesthetics for recreation and teaching are also present.
What does the acronym HIPPO refer to?
This acronym spells out habitat destruction, invasive species, pollution population (human), and overharvesting.
Have extinctions occurred in the past? Is there anything unusual about current extinction?
While extinctions have been happening for hundreds of thousands of years (whether it be animals, plants, small or entire species) recent human involvement and over use of resources has increased extinction rates greatly.
Why are exotic or invasive species a threat to biodiversity?Give several examples of exotic invasive species (see fig. 5.26).
1. They increase competition
2. They become predators to some species
3. They can be invasive.
4. They can overpopulate a certain region examples:zebra mussel, gypsy moth, cheat grass, mongoose
What does the Endangered Species Act do?
The baseline of this act is to say that all species play a vital part in ecoystems and therefore must be protected. It protects animals that are seen to be at risk for extinction.
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