CMST 1061 Midterm

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What are the 5 components of communication?1. People 2. The message 3. The channel of channels of delivery 4. Feedback 5. NoisePeopleCommunication requires both a sender and receiverSenderMay be an individual person or group of peopleIntended ReceiverThe person or persons to whom the message is targetedUnintended AudienceReceives the message even though the message is not specifically for themSide-stream audienceThese are the individuals to whom the message is not directed, but overhear the messageMessageRefers to the conveyed contentEncodedThis means the thoughts and ideas must be translated into verbal and nonverbal symbolsDecodedThis consists of assigning meaning to the thoughtsChannelThe means of delivery for the messageWhat are the 2 basic channels of delivery for face-to-face communication?Verbal NonverbalVerbal channelConsists of words that are spokenNonverbal channelConsists of such things as gestures, facial expressions, eye contact, body posture, and movementAuditory messagesSent and received via the sense of soundVisual MessagesSent and received via the sense of sightTactile MessagesSent and received via the sense of touchOlfactory MessagesSent and received via the sense of smellGustatory MessagesSent and received via the sense of tasteTechnological ChannelIncludes devices such as the computer, cell phone, radio, television, and electronic billboardsFeedbackThe receivers response to the messageNoiseReferred to as interference because it is anything that interferes with the clarity of the messageWhat are the five pathways of communication1. Professional Communication 2. Public Discourse 3. Communication in Human Relationships 4. Visual and Mediated Communication 5.Communication in art and cultureSmall group communicationDefined as the interaction of 3-12 interdependent people working together to achieve a common goalInteractionMeans that individuals share ideas and opinions, make decisions, and solve problems togetherInterdependentMeans that each member of the group is influenced by and directly affected by the actions and behaviors of othersWorkingRefers to being productive toward completing the common goalCommon goalThe task or objective assigned to the groupTask roleDefined as any position in a group occupied by a member who performs behaviors that promote completion of tasks and activitiesRelationship role or social emotional roleDefined as any position in a group occupied by a member who performs behaviors that improve the nature and quality of interpersonal relationships among membersIndividual rolesAn expressed behavior of an internal or psychological traitInitiator-contributorSuggests new ways to approach a problemInformation seekerSeeks facts and information; asks others for facts and information; requests evaluationsOpinion seekerSeeks more qualitative types of data such as attitudes, values, and feelingsInformation giverPresents data; offers facts and information for decision-makingElaboratorClarifies ideas, gives additional information; expands ideas made by others; provides examples, illustrations, and explanationsCoordinatorIntegrates; shows the relevance of each idea and its relationship to the problem; organizes the group's work, promotes teamwork and cooperation'sOrienterGets members to refocus on topic when necessaryEvaluator-criticCritiques ideas or suggestions; appraises the quality of the group's methods, logic, and resultsEnergizerEncourages the group to continue working when discussion wanesProcedual technicianCares for operational details, such as materials, machinery, and so onRecorderTakes notes and maintains records, keeps track of the groups work; prepares reports and takes minutesEncouragerPraises others; expresses warmth and support; rewards others through agreementHarmonizerMediates conflict among group members; helps relieve tensionCompromiserChanges one's position on an issue in order to reduce conflict in the groupWhat are the 5 types of noise?1. External 2. Psychological 3. Physiological 4.Organizational 5.SemanticExternal noiseAny interference coming through the 5 sense channelsPsychological noiseA distraction coming from inside your own headOrganizational noisedeals with structure of the messagePhysiological noiseA distraction originating from your bodySemantic noiseDue to a language or cultural barrierShared MeaningThe end goal of the communication processGate keeper and expediterSets up procedures and ensures equal participation form members by keeping communication channels open; manages communication flowGroup observer and commentatorIdentifies positive and negative aspects of the group's dynamics and seeks change if necessary; makes comments on how to the group is workingFollowerAccepts the ideas from other members and serves as an audience for the groupAggressorAntagonizes the group by expressing disapproval of ideas, behaviors, and feelings. Verbally attacks group membersBlockerOpposes the group unnecessarily; prevents progress towards the group's goals; resists the group's influence; refuses to accept or support a group decisionRecognition seekerSelf-aggrandizer; stage hogger; calls attention to himself or herself; boasts of self-accomplishments, skills and abilitiesSelf-confessorExpresses personal interests, feelings, and opinions unrelated to group goalsPlayboy/girlCavalier, uninvolved in group; nonchalantDominatorAsserts authority or superiority; interrupts; refuses to accept others conclusions, and imposes one's ownHelp seekerRelates insecurity, confusion, and negativity of one's selfSpecial interest pleaderPleads special interests, demands time and resources for subgroup or special interests, stays apart from the group by advocating the interests of another groupThe managerial leadership gridA simple framework that identifies and defines a total of 7 basic leadership styles that characterize workplace behavior and the resulting relationship(9,9) team management (contribute and commit)The leader initiates team action in a way that invites involvement and commitment. The leader explores all of the facts and alternative views in order to reach a shared understanding of the best solution. The leader shows a high degree of concern for both people (9) and task (9). The group works together with mutual respect and a strong goal orientation. Tasks are accomplished by committed people; Interdependence through a common stake in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect. This is a superior decision-making style.(9,1) Controlling (Direct and Dominate)Controlling is also referred to as authority-obedience. The leader expects results and takes control by clearly stating a course of action. The leader enforces rules that sustain high results and does not permit deviation from those rules. The group may be highly efficient, but this style can create feelings of disenfranchisement in members. The leader is concerned with completing the task (9) but shows little interest or regard for relationships (1). Efficiency in operations results from arranging working conditions in such a way that minimizes human interaction. This style of leadership prevents creative decision making that results form group synergy.(5,5) Status Quo (Balance and Compromise)Status Quo is also referred to as middle of the road. This leader endorses results that are popular but does not like to take unnecessary risks. Even though the leader is not strongly committed in either direction, the leader shows a moderate concern for interpersonal relationships (5) and a moderate concern for the immediate task (5). The leader tests his or her opinions with others involved in order to assure ongoing acceptability. Adequate organization performance is achievable by balancing the need to produce work with maintaining group morale at a satisfactory level. The outcome is not likely to be optimal, but it may satisfy everyone to some degree.(1,9) Accommodating (Yield and Comply)Accommodating is also known as country club management. This type of leader supports results that establish and reinforce harmony. The leader is known to generate enthusiasm by focusing on positive and pleasing aspects of work. Thoughtful attention to the needs of people for satisfying relationships produces a comfortable, friendly organization environment and work tempo. This is an inefficient style for finding a solution to a problem; however, if the group and the leader prefer to feel good about each other, and the leader assumes sole responsibility for decision making, then this is an appropriate style.. (1,1) Indifferent (Evade and Elude)Indifferent is also referred to as impoverished management. The leader in this style distances him or her from taking responsibility for results in order to avoid getting entangled in problems. If compelled, the leader will assume a passive or supportive position. With a low concern for both people (1) and task (1), this leader does not attempt to influence group members and is indifferent as to whether or not they achieve their goals. This style is used by leaders who are overworked; don't care about the project, or who have retired on the job. The leader exerts minimum effort to get the required work accomplishment sufficient to maintain organization membership. This style does not promote the group's interpersonal relationships or goal accomplishments.(9,9) Paternalistic (Prescribe and Guide)Leadership is provided by defining initiatives for the leaders and others. The leader offers praise and appreciation for support and discourages any challenges to his or her thinking. Similar to the team management style, the leader shows a high level of concern for both people (9) and task (9). However, instead of assuming the group has self-interest in the outcome and is working for intrinsic gratification, the leader assumes the group is burdened by the task and requires extrinsic rewards. The leader urges the group to complete its tasks, and then rewards the members in ways she or he has available--salaries, benefits, or working conditions, for example. Some negative aspects are that group members may simply work for a price and never develop loyalty, commitment, or pride in the workplace.OpportunismThe leader persuades others to support results that offer the leader private benefit. If members also benefit, that facilitates their support. The leader relies on whatever approach is needed to secure an advantage. The leader uses people, authority, and the environment as she or she sees fit. The leader has a (5,5) style toward group members considered equals; a (9,1) style toward those the leader views as less important; and a (1,9) behavior towards those in authority. The paternalistic style is viewed as self-serving, without genuine concern for the group's welfare.What are the three major sources of conflict within group?1. Resource-related conflict 2. Social-related conflict 3. Task-related conflictResource related conflictOccurs when group members perceive a shortage in supply, aid, or assetsSocial-related conflictOccur because of differences in personality, culture, values, or interestsTask-related conflictOccurs when two or more group members' goals, ideas, or opinions about how to best complete the objective are incompatibleAnalyticals1. Fact driven and thinking oriented 2. Great importance of task at hand 3. All details are correct 4. Don't like to take risks 5. Perfectionism 6. Low in assertiveness and responsiveness 7. Introverts 8. Hard Workers 9. Prefer to work aloneDrivers1. Decision-driven and action oriented 2. Take charge in business situations 3. Accomplish a lot in a short amount of time 4. Extroverts 5. High in assertiveness and low in responsiveness 6. Demanding 7. Need to be in control at all timesAmiables1. People-driven and Relationship oriented 2. Relationships with others are more important than task at hand 3. Prefer to take orders than to give orders 4. Introverts 5. Low in assertiveness and high in responsiveness 6. Hesitant to share own ideas or opinions 7. Important for everyone to get along and avoid conflictExpressives1. Idea-driven and intuition oriented 2. Enthusiastic and creative 3. Easily bored 4. Go off on tangents 5. Extroverts 6. Both high in assertiveness and responsiveness 7. trusting and friendlyInitiate actionGet the audience to do somethingMaintain actionGet the audience to continue to do somethingFormulate a beliefGet the audience to believe in the truth or existence of somethingExplicit interestsThe goals that are clearly stated within the discourseHidden interestsThe goals that are often difficult or impossible to identify because they are never stated in the discoursePersonaLiterally means "mask." It is the "public face" that the speaker usesTarget AudienceThe best possible audience to hear the message because this group is most capable of helping the rhetor accomplish the goalEmpirical AudienceSometimes called the situated audience, consists of those individuals who are actually present to hear or view the messageEvoked AudienceThe textual construction of the audience created by the rhetor for the purpose of persuasionCriticized AudienceRepresents those who are in competition with the rhetor's interestsPolarizationA strategy used by the rhetor that serves to create this criticized audience. It breaks individual into 2 groups: "us" and "them"ConstraintsObstacles that stand between the rhetor and the attainment of the goalWhat are the two types of constraints?1. Internal constraints 2. External constraintsInternal constraintsThe beliefs, values, and attitudes of the audience that must be changed in order for persuasion to occurExternal constraintsConsist of things that physically obstruct you from taking action, even if persuasion has already occurredThe SophistsA group of men considered to be the first teachers of public speaking. They had a reputation for deceptive reasoning. Their philosophy was on RelativismSocratesEquated knowledge with virtue. He belived that real truth does not existPlatoFirst person to make ethics a relevant consideration in the practice of rhetoric. He believed that to accept relative truth is immoral. There is an Ideal Truth that once can only obtain through knowledgeAristotleHe believed that absolute truth was obtainable. He believed 2 kinds of truth existed in society: 1. The truths of natural science 2. Social truths. Truth is probable. Not absolute. Logos, Pathos, and ethosEthicsPrinciples for acceptable and unacceptable behaviorEthosThe persuasive potential of the speaker's characterWhat are the three types of ethos?1. Initial Ethos 2. Derived Ethos 3. Terminal EthosInitial EthosThe ethos the rhetor has prior to the beginning of the speech or communication act. It is based on such things as background, personal characteristics, position, or experience.The sponsorship effectOccurs when the individuals who present or represent the speaker impact (either positively or negatively) the initial credibility of the speakerDerived EthosThe ethos the rhetor garners during the communication act. Credibility is derived from the content and presentation of the message.IdentificationA strategy that many rhetors use to develop ethos. It stresses similarities between the speaker and the audience.DistinctionThe opposite of identification. At times the audience prefers to listen to a speaker who is somehow "superior" to them.Terminal EthosThe ethos that occurs at the completion of the communication act. The audience has time to reflect on what the speaker said and decide if the speaker was credible.What ar the 2 major genres of persuasion?1. Argumentative Persuasion 2. Manipulative PersuasionArgumentative PersuasionAppeals to the intellect of the audience. It works by building arguments out of evidence and reasoning. Logos.What are types of evidence?1. Statistics 2. Specific instances 3. Quotes or opinions from qualified expertsReasoning from signExamines specific clues to diagnose an underlying conditionReasoning from causationArgues the effects of something are brought about by some underlying causeReasoning from analogyCompares to dissimilar things to make a pointReasoning from parallel caseCompares two similar events or casesManipulative persuasionUsually media based and works by appealing to the emotions of the audience through visual imagery, emotive music, and the use of attractive spokespeople. Pathos.UtopiaIf positive emotions are attached to a social event or social considerationsWastelandIf negative emotions are attached to a social event or social conditionsVirtueWhen positive emotions are attached to an actionViceWhen negative emotions are attached to an actionSaintEndowing a person with good characteristicsSinnerEndowing a person with evil characteristicsIdolAdvertise products focus on the positive qualities of the objectAbominationHighlight the negative qualities of the competitionWhat are two types of manipulative persuasion?1. Commercial advertising 2. Noncommercial advertisingCommercial AdvertisingAppear in newspapers, magazines, on tv, in movie theaters, and even onlineNoncommercial advertisingUsed to educate the audience and promote a specific point of view on a given social issuePublic Service AnnouncementNoncommercial advertisements broadcast "for the public good". Broadcast on television, radio, and social media. The ads deliver critical messages to the American public in order to modify public attitudes and raise critical awareness about specific issues.Social Issue PostersSometimes referred to as a Social Issue Design or Cultural Poster Design, but are produced in 2-dimensional poster or billboard form.Political CartoonsUse manipulative persuasion to accomplish their goal because they include visual symbols and humor to create persuasive message. A simple line drawing or illustration with a humorous edge, designed to convey cultural values and beliefs, and explore relationships between people and events.Small TalkThe surface level exchange of informationWhat are the three basic kinds of topics to talk about?1. The situation 2. The other person 3. YourselfWhat are 4 things you can do to help maintain the conversation?1. Ask open-ended questions 2. Make use of free information 3. Ask follow-up questions 4. Keep the conversation lightApologyA written or spoken act of communication that expresses regret or sorrow for emotionally hurting another person or breaking a rule of social conduct.I'm at Fault ApologyAn apology given when you realize you were in the wrong and your actions had negative consequences for the other person. The wrong doings consist of minor infractions caused by accidents, carelessness or mismanagement. The other person suffers a loss of some kind, but the loss rarely results in hurt feelings.I regret it apologyThis apology is similar to and often mistaken for the "I'm at Fault" apology mentioned above. Your words or actions cause the other person emotional pain or grief.I sympathize apologyThis apology is given to express empathy, compassion, or understanding for the situation of the other person.Forced ApologyThis apology is often demanded of children by adults when the child is engaged in some type of conflictBlanket ApologyThis apology is given when you know you need to apologize for something, but you are not really sure what you have done wrong.Condescending ApologyWhen you apologize but you do so by shifting the blame to the other personApology excuseYou offer an apology, but then attempt to justify your behavior by offering a legitimate reason for the infractionLieAn inaccurate or false statement intended to mislead another individualEquivocal messageMessages that have two or more equally plausible yet vague meaningsTrue, clear messageWhen you have spoken the truth and there is no other way to interpret your wordsFalse, clear messageYou respond with a false statement yet the statement is not ambiguousTrue, equivocal messageThe statement is true but the statement is also ambiguousFalse, equivocal messageYou lie, but you do so in a way that you can avoid being caught in the lie later onAcknowledgementConsists of directly responding to what the other person has said. The response can include paraphrasing the other person to make sure you understand the message or asking questions to receive more informationEndorsementOccurs when you agree with the other person's evaluation. You let them know you concur with their judgement or appraisal of the person, place thing, or event.Supportive responseSimilar to endorsement, but you do not have to agree with the other person's evaluation. Instead, you express sympathy and understanding, and offer reassurance to the other person that everything will be okay.AdvisingOccurs when you offer the other person guidance, based on your opinion about what they should do in their current situation. You recommend a particular plan of action or mode of conduct.AnalyzingExamines the other person's message in order to help them try and identify possible causes for their problem.InterruptingWhen you cut the other person's message shortIrrelevant responseYour reply is completely unrelated to what the other person has just saidTangential ResponseIt is similar to an irrelevant response. The key difference is you briefly acknowledge what the other person has said, but then take the conversation in a completely different direction.Non-immediacyYou display verbal or nonverbal cues that minimize interest, closeness, or availabilityDiscountingOccurs when you minimize the importance of what the other person says.DegradingDebases or humiliates the other personPowerGives one individual control in a communication situationReward PowerA person has the ability to make the other comply with the request because they have some physical or emotional resource that we want or need.Coercive PowerThe person has the ability to inspire fearExpert PowerThe person has special knowledge or skillsLegitimate PowerThe person is influential because they represent some social institutionReferent PowerWe comply with their request out of admiration or respectSelf presentationBehaviors individuals use in order to influence othersIngratiatorUse charm, helpfulness and flattery to control others. The "brown-noser" "Yes Man"IntimidatorThe person want to appear dangerous or violentSelf-promotorWants to be perceived as competent so they attempt to build credibility through impressing others with their knowledge, training and experienceExemplifierExerts control by personifying the values admired by others. They want others to see them as honest, moral and ethical so that others comply out of admirationSupplicatorAttempts to control others by appearing weak, helpless or defenseless so individuals will come to their aid or rescueLikingA form of flattery. You try to get the other person in a good mood or positive frame of mind before you ask what you want. This is usually accomplished by paying them a compliment or buttering them upPre-givingYou give a gift to or do a favor for the other person before you ask for what you wantPromiseWhen you offer the other person something in exchange for their compliance. There is some reward involved if the other person does what you want. The reward comes after the other person has completedThreatThere is some negative consequence or punishment involved if the other person does not complyDebt"You owe me" Approach. You remind the other person of a favor you did for them in the past.Altruism"Do it for me" approach. You ask the other person selflessly put your needs ahead of their own. The other person should comply to your request as a personal favor because they value you and the relationship.Esteem-selfTells the other person if they comply, they will feel proud of their actions and perhaps even get some recognition and self-satisfactionEsteem-otherTells the person that other people will be proud of them if they complyGuiltNegative Approach. It attempts to make the other person feel a sense of personal responsibility and remorse if they do not comply.Pseudo ConflictNot really a conflict at all although it may look like a conflict on the surfaceMisunderstandingWhen 2 people have a pseudo conflict and have a discrepancy in shared meaning or believe their goals are in compatibleDisagreement over content or matters of factWhen two people has a pseudo conflict over the facts of a situationMisinterpretation of another's intentWhen you interpret the other person's behavior differently from what the behavior actually isScarcity of resourcesWhen there is not enough of something to go aroundIndividual differencesDifferences in values, beliefs, attitudes, interests, and decisions to be made can all contribute to conflictInappropriate behaviorOccurs when one person violates the relational expectations or social contract of the relationshipEgo conflictResults when a conflict gets personal and the individuals use their words to verbally attack each otherAccommodationNon-assertive approach in resolving conflict. You give in to the other person with no regard to your own needs or desires. Lose-WinCompetitionAn aggressive approach in resolving conflict. You have an overwhelming need to get your way and force your position on the other person. Win-LoseCollaborationAn assertive conflict-resolution strategy. You stand up for your own rights while taking into account the rights of the other person. Win-WinCompromiseBoth parties try to find some middle ground, however, the end result leaves the individuals only partially satisfied. Lose-LoseBridgingOccurs when the 2 individuals settle on a new option that was not one of the original goals at the outset of the conflict, but which satisfies both parties.DESC ScriptingMore aggressive approach used to resolve conflicts caused by inappropriate behavior.T/F Maria hates to wash dishes. She tells her boyfriend Doug that if he will wash the dishes after dinner, she will do his laundry for him. Maria is using the compliance-gaining strategy of pre-giving.FalseT/F Socrates believed that truth is relativeFalseT/F Sinner is a form of pathos that repels us from certain actions by making them morally offensive or harmful.FalseT/F Because it results in a "win-win" outcome, collaboration is always the best strategy to use when resolving conflict.FalseT/F Sydney is a leader who has a moderate concern for both people and the task. She believes in balance and compromise. She doesn't like to take unnecessary risks, thus, she usually takes a middle-of-the-road approach to leadership. Sydney's leadership style is indifferent.FalseCarol e-mailed a copy of her report to her coworker Steve and asked him to double-check her statistics before their meeting with a client. Carol never heard back from Steve so she didn't know whether or not her information was accurate. In this communication transaction, the problem was primarily related to:FeedbackSally and Bob are on a date. While eating dinner, Sally observes a piece of green spinach stuck between Bob's front teeth. While Bob doesn't seem to be aware of this, it is quite obvious to Sally. Sally doesn't want to embarrass Bob by pointing it out, yet she is unable to concentrate on the conversation because she is constantly drawn to the leafy green wedge. Sally is being distracted by __________ noise.External"I'm sorry I ate the leftover pizza you were saving for lunch today," is an example of which type of apology?I'm at faultStuart is always bragging about his accomplishments, skills, and abilities. He is a computer wiz and makes sure his other group members know it. Stuart plays the individual role of:Recognition seekerIn order to have the most successful interaction when working with amiables, you should:Ask open-ended questionsDenise hates fishing. She especially hates bating the hook and being outside with all the mosquitos. So when her new boyfriend asked her if she would like to go fishing on the weekend, Denise replied, "Yes, I would love to go! Fishing is one of my favorite activities." In this situation, Denise lied in order to:Increase social desirabilityDavid tells Jackie, "I'm feeling so stressed this week. I have 3 papers to write and 4 midterms to study for." Jackie replies, "Just concentrate on doing one thing at a time. It will make the load seem less overwhelming." Jackie's response would be considered:AdvisingA recent article claims that the government is secretly installing specialized microchips on all debit cards in order to track your purchases. You won't be able to see them, so you may not think they are there, but they do exist and the practice is an infringement on your right to privacy. The primary rhetorical goal if this message is to:Formulate a beliefEarthbound Farm Organic Mixed Baby Greens are grown in harmony with nature. They are free from toxic substances that may be found in other pre-packaged salad mixes. With each crisp, delicious bit of our Mixed Baby Greens, you'll know you're getting the best of what nature has to offer." This persuasive message relies primarily on which form of pathos?Idol