Exam 1 Persuasion
Terms in this set (95)
From the beginning an assumption made before examination or analysis; from cause to effect; based on theory.
The medium used to send a message from a source to a receiver (e.g., face-to-face, telephone, television, or internet).
The magic that some leaders have that causes others to follow them with great devotion; the ancient Greeks believed this quality was a gift sent from the Gods.
Part of the Joseph DeVito communication model that consists of four parts in a communication transaction- time, place, social, and psychological aspects of the event.
Believability; the reputation of the speaker, which includes many components such as attractiveness, expertise, trustworthiness, similarity to the audience, and past performances
Based on the work of George Gerbner, which showed that heavy television viewing led to the cultivation of distorted values, or the "Mean World Syndrome".
To interpret or decipher a message to derive meaning from it.
A speaker who uses unethical methods to appeal to the people to achieve their own selfish ends, generally power and wealth.
The impact that a message has immediately and through time.
Elaboration Likelihood Model
An information processing theory that posits that there are two routes to persuasion- the central processing route, which uses logical elaboration to examine ideas, and the peripheral route, which uses more rule-of-thumb reasoning, like the appearance or expertise of the speaker to evaluate ideas.
To create a message from words or symbols that have shared meaning.
The response given to a message which informs the source that the idea was transmitted successfully, interpreted, and understood by the receiver, an essential part of communication.
Means simply that the message went from the speaker to the receiver and the receiver responded to complete the loop.
Field of Experience
Common ground or diverse views that each sender and receiver has that can either facilitate or obstruct communication efforts.
Communication wherein the receiver's ideas are in alignment with those of the source; the ability to fully understand the position, beliefs, and attitudes of another.
Speech that transmits facts and has comprehension as the goal for the receiver.
Incoherent speech or gibberish; language from a specialized field such as medicine or science that is not readily understood by others.
Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC)
The process of building and reinforcing mutually profitable relationships with employees, customers, and other stakeholders through a co-ordinated communications program.
The ideas or thoughts that a source creates to send to a receiver in oral or written form.
Any interference that impedes the transmission or reception of a message, which may include physical noise, like a factory, or psychological noise, which includes prejudices and biases for or against another.
A form o communication that employs both verbal and nonverbal symbols that intend to influence receivers to voluntarily change attitudes, values, beliefs,and behaviors to agree with those supported by the advocate of the message.
The deliberate, systematic attempt to shape perceptions, manipulate cognitions, and direct behavior to achieve a response that furthers the desired intent of the propagandist.
A management function that includes press agentry; education; image creation, maintenance, and repair; lobbying; special events; and communication with all publics; according to Edward Bernays, engineering of public consent.
The person or audience who is targeted to get the message.
Rhetorical discourse is receiver-centered because the response to the message depends on the audience's, or receiver's, response to it.
A speaker; a master teacher of communication, according tot he Greeks, that combined politics and public speaking.
The faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion according to Aristotle; the foundations of persuasion.
Employs the use of leading questions to make a point or to elicit the correct answer.
Also known as the speaker; the person who creates the message.
Messages that are below the conscious level but still are believed to be received and influential, e.g., embedded pictures in ads, hidden graphics, or messages.
Universals of Communication
Joseph DeVito's communication model, which consists of 10 parts: communication context, source, encode,message, noise, channel, receiver, decode, feedback, and effect.
Also called "para-language", the nonverbal code that includes all vocal qualities- pitch, rhythm, resonance, dialect, volume, and rate.
Allegory of the Cave
An allegory from Plato's dialogue The Republic that represents the contrast between the world of sense perception and the world of light or the world of the Good.
Arguments or evidence that the speaker creates to persuade the audience, according to Aristotle, based on the orator's knowledge, creativity, and judgement.
The quality of being logically integrated, consistent, and intelligible.
Those attitudes, beliefs, values, and experiences that people have in common that facilitate understanding and aid persuasion; synonymous with identification or alignment.
One of three types of rhetoric hat Aristotle identified; speech that is largely ceremonial, offering eulogies or tributes to the deceased or offering accolades to the living.
The image, credibility, and character of the speaker; one of the three classical appeals Aristotle identified as most influential in persuasion. There are three stages of ethos; initial- audience assessment of speaker based on speaker's reputation before the speech; derived- audience assessment speaker earns during the speech; and terminal- assessment based on interaction between initial and derived ethos.
Faithfulness to truth and duty; accuracy in reproduction.
From the Latin forensis, meaning public or marketplace, suitable for public debate; focused on the legal system where prosecution and defense of individuals occur, one of the three forms of speech Aristotle identified.
Explanation and interpretation of scripture or texts.
The art of writing and preaching sermons.
Reveal a structure of public motives that have the power to influence, or maybe determine, the shape of each individual's reality.
Means of persuasion that are not invented by the orator's knowledge or creativity, but merely used, Aristotle said, like laws, witnesses, contracts, tortures, and oaths.
In persuasion, the practice of making audiences immune to the damaging information of an adversary by controlling how the message is released, explained, or framed beforehand.
The process of propagandizing the masses; Jacques Ellul's theory that the masses are propagandized daily by the immersion of individuals continuously by indoctrination from technological society's' myths and ideology.
The logic of the arguments created by the source; one of Aristotle's three classical appeals used in persuasion.
A traditional story of unknown authorship handed down for generations that explains some phenomena of nature, generally involving gods or heroes; a story, legend or tribal belief. Ellul (1965) defined myth as "an all encompassing image".
Walter Fisher's (1984) paradigm that synthesizes two strands in rhetorical theory- the argumentative, persuasive theme and the literary, aesthetic theme premised on the persuasive power of narratives.
A pattern, example, or model; the accepted view of an idea or situation.
Emotions or psychological appeals to arouse compassion, pity, or outrage; one of the three classical appeals used in persuasion, according to Aristotle.
Communication that involves deliberation offering arguments for or against public policies; debates focusing on topics such as war and peace, treaties, foreign and domestic welfare.
Ways to intensify and downplay communication. Intensify by repetition, association, and composition. Downplay by omission, diversion, and confusion.
The first teachers in ancient Greece who taught rhetoric, law, and public speaking for a fee.
Place, Aristotle thought of as a metaphor similar to a place where the hunter would go to find game, with each animal having its own haunt that it occupied and where it could be found. Similarly, he regarded topos as a pigeonhole in the mind of the speaker whole lines of argument could be found to present to the audience, maybe a whole realm of science.
A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Based on the assumption that people desire to have agreement in beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors and where there is dissonance, there is psychological discomfort, which drives the person to restore a feeling of balance through adaptive steps like avoidance or change.
Free Choice Paradigm
Deals with the psychological doubts that a person feels after making a decision; buyer's remorse.
When people are confronted with information that is inconsistent with their beliefs, they will engage in selective exposure by avoiding, rejecting, or distorting such information
General acceptance that if a person has to earn something then he or she appreciates it more.
Also called the forced choice paradigm; if a person is forced to engage in actions contrary to their attitudes or self-image, they find it easier to accept than doing it for rewards or of their own free will- e.g. defending a heinous criminal pro bono.
The general characteristics of the audience such as age, income, ethnicity, politics, and education; data used to target consumers, voters, or audience members for persuasive messages.
Eight Hidden Needs
Vance Packard (1957) offered these as sources of persuasion- emotional security, reassurance of worth, ego, gratification, creative outlets, love objects, sense of power, sense of roots, and immortality.
Elaboration Likelihood (ELM)
An information-processing theory that posits that there are two routes to persuasion- the central processing route, which uses logical elaboration to examine ideas, and the peripheral route, which uses more rule-of-thumb reasoning, like the appearance or expertise of the speaker to evaluate ideas.
Expectancy Violation Theory (EVT)
Deals with audience expectations regarding language, nonverbal behavior, gender roles, and social norms and the reaction when those expectations are violated or are not met by persuaders.
Hypodermic Needle Theory
Message is thought to enter the body in a well-targeted and effective manner like a shot with no defense. "Sucker born every minute" "gullible audiences".
Mere Exposure Theory (MET)
Also called "mere exposure effect', the repeated exposure to an unfamiliar stimulus can have a positive effect toward the stimulus, e.g., name or face recognition.
Consumer or audience profiles that aim to reveal their lifestyles and mindsets, e.g., veterans, baby boomers, generation Xers, and millenials.
Pyramid of Needs (Deficit/being)
A.H. Maslow's theory that people have needs arranged in a pyramid- physiological, safety, belonging, and esteem needs, called deficit needs and at the top self-actualization needs.
Role Playing/Counterattitudinal Advocacy
Taking the role of another has been used in couples' counseling and other settings to change attitudes and behavior.
People generally avoid messages or information that is inconsistent with their beliefs, values, and customs, and they seek out people, messages, or customs that are consistent with their own.
Social Judgement Theory
Positions exist along a continuum from strong opposition to acceptance on issues with an anchor point that identifies an individual's stand on that issue, and persuaders attempt to change the anchor position through various strategies of communication.
Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)
Addresses the process of an individual weighing the benefits and risks of taking a course of action and also taking into consideration what friends or family will think of their action.
Black Power Movement
A social movement of the 1960's and 1970's to redefine stereotypes about African Americans by declaring that "black is beautiful".
Culture that coexist within the dominant culture in a country; for example Little Italy, Chinatown, Polish Hill, and other ethnic groups.
Idea suggested or associated with a word; a more idiosyncratic meaning than the denoted meaning or the dictionary meaning.
(2007) Wrote the Fight for English: How Language pundits Ate, Shot, and Left, which traces the evolution of English from Latin through the Anglo-Saxon era.
The direct, explicit meaning of a word or term; the dictionary meaning agreed on by educated people.
A concept introduced by Kenneth Burke to analyze language that had a negative connotation and presented evil to the receiver, such as war, recession, racism; the opposite of a god-term.
A situation where two alternatives are offered, but both lead to the same conclusion or consequence; a persuasion strategy, according to D.T. Jacobs (1995), used by Rush Limbaugh.
The Feminine Mystique
A malady identified by Betty Friedan (1963) as a loss of identity and power in the book The Feminine Mystique, which became a touchstone book for the feminist movement that demanded not just voting power, but parity in corporations and in sexual politics.
Words have functional meanings that they fulfill in grammar so that a noun is the name of a person, place, or thing. verbs are action words that inform us of what the subject of the sentence is doing or being and conjunctions join words or phrases.
Characteristics such as anecdotes, self-disclosing speech with hedges or qualifiers has been attributed by analysts as "feminine speech" or powerless speech while "masculine speech" is identified with logic and powerful arguments; stereotypes associated with gender communication.
the study of the relations between language, thought, and behavior; between how we talk, therefore how we think, and therefore how we act.
Powerful terms for which people are willing to sacrifice or to die, according to Kenneth Burke, e.g., liberty, justice, peace, progress, etc.; the opposite of devil-terms.
S. I. Hayakawa
A Language scholar who defined general semantics as the study of language to analyze the relationship between language, thought, and behavior to understand who we talk, how we think, and how we act.
Mannerisms, customs, or views peculiar to the individual or group.
A physicist who started the semanticist movement when he wrote the book Science and Sanity; An introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics (1933).
A language scholar who has written widely about the nature of metaphors and how conceptual systems of thought influence philosophical discourse by framing arguments.
"Letter from Birmingham Jail"
The letter that Dr. MLK Jr. wrote to critics to explain his active participation in the civil rights movement through demonstrations, sit-ins, and marches to confront the established power structure in Alabama.
A figure of speech where one thing is likened to another, for example, "the mind is like a computer"; an implied comparison.
A challenge to existing perceptions or practices, for example, liberal ideology challenges conservative ideology, Muslim ideology challenges Judeo-Christian ideology.
Depreciatory; in linguistics, applies to words whose basic meaning has been changed for the worse; for example, "propaganda" used to mean to propagate the Catholic faith, now it means to use deceptive means or to mount a campaign to control, as in the Nazi regime.
Walter Lippmann's term meaning a civility in language and in deeds based on natural law which guaranteed certain rights to all humans.
A prejudicial characterization or mold that does not allow for any individuality; when applied to people, the image is generally negative.