Terms in this set (60)
examples of early cultures: art from the Stone Age as well as from when the climate warmed after the Ice Age reveals what about sexuality? i.e., who was worshipped in terms of fertility during these time periods and why?
Stone Age- men were primarily hunters and women were suppose to take care of children
-women worshipped for having children (fertility)(ability to reproduce)
-women form was celebrated
-statues over exaggerated women forms w/ big breast & wide hips
Ice Age- People became farmers, raised cattle's, cattles would have sex therefore they realized the males played a role in human creation
- men were worshiped for their penis (phallic worship)
(1) for ancient Hebrews, what was the purpose of sex?
(2) how did the ancient Hebrews view same-sex relations and adultery?
(1)for the ancient Hebrews the purpose of sex was intended for marriage and procreation
(2) the ancient Hebrews viewed same-sex relations were strongly condemned and adultery was or could've been condemned for women by death
(1) how did the ancient Greeks view sex?
(2) how did they view same-sex relations?
(1) the ancient Greeks viewed sex by admiring the male body and enjoyed nude wrestling in the arena,
(2) * Greeks believed women and men were all bisexual, so male-male sex was viewed as normal and acceptable as long as it did not threaten the institution of family
* how did the ancient Greeks view prostitution?
prostitution = sale of sex for money or goods - flourished at every level of society - in the upper class were courtesans, who were skilled in music, dance, politics, and also sex, and in lower class were brothels
what were the social class differences in ancient Rome regarding sex?
Upperclass- sexual excess very common Ex: Hosted orgy parties
Middle class- very conservative, same sex relations condemned
(1) * how did ancient China view sex?
(2) * What is YIN, and how often were men and women encouraged to reach orgasm?
(1) * -Art/literature is extremely erotic- 1st sex manuals came from there
-Taoism promoted sexual activity such as embracing oral sex, touching, etc
(2) (female sexual energy)- were encourage to orgasm often because it created sexual energy for them
(1) how did the Hindus of ancient India view sex?
(2) what is the Kama Sutra?
(1) Having sex brought you to a higher level of existence
-extremely sexually involved
(2) Sex manual of positions to encourage pleasurable sex/included recipes for aphrodisiacs/ categorized men by the size of their penis and women by their vagina in order to find a perfect fit but understand it may not be possible and that tighter is better than lose
(1) in the U.S., who were the Puritans,
(2) and how did they view sex?
(1)* They are people who are of bible based society who believed in religious, moral and societal reforms.
(2) believed in severe punishments for certain sexual activities. Severe punishment for rape, bestiality, asodomy, adultery (punishable by death)
-Sex should between marriage and for the reason of preocreation
how were slaves and Native American Indians viewed/treated by white Americans?
* They were seen as savages because they were polygamist, a justified action for their culture because tribes were constantly facing a shortage of men due to the constant tribe wars and deaths
-Native American women violated sexually and not allowed to prosecute against rapes
what was the Free Love Movement of the 1820s?
* People who believed that love not marriage should be a requirement for sexual relations
by the end of the 19th Century, the medical model of sex began to emerge - what is this, and know examples of their views (ex: views about masturbation . . .)
more of a medical approach to sex, church started losing influence
Ex: doctors would say too much masturbation will make you ill
Ex: Homosexuality male doctors say gayness is a medical disorder
what was the Comstock Act of 1873?
outlawed the mailing of obscene and lewd writing or advertisements, which included articles about contraception and abortion
*what was the Social Hygiene Movement began in 1905?
STI's were on the rise-they started to crack down on prostitution, taught "sex education" (misinformation) in schools to scare ppl
* what is sexology?
sex researchers began to bring sex into the open as a legitimate topic of study, rather than sex as a religious should/should not
what is the biological theory approach to studying sex?
* studies how the mechanisms of reproduction & looks at sexual arousal & response (looks how the body acts)
what is the evolutionary theory approach to studying sex?
* says men are naturally sexually aggressive (men want to have sex w/ as many ppl as they can). Says women are more sexually conservative (more so because theyre able to have children)
what is the psychological theory approach to studying sex?
* psychoanalytic theory- all ppl have biologically based sex drives
-Humans have erogenous zones (parts of the body that get you sexually aroused, but you don't necessarily see them as sexually parts) (Ex: ears, neck, shoulders, etc)
Behaviorism-focuses on rewards and punishments
what is the sociological theory approach to studying sex?
focus on how cultural institutions and beliefs affect people's sexual behavior and people's sense of morality
(1) what is a case study, and
(2) what are its advantages and limitations?
(1) When a researcher explores an individual case= generating a hypothesis
Ex: Freud would study hysteria in only one patient because he didnt have several patients with similar complaints
(2) -may generate hypotheses that can lead to larger, generalizable studies and
Doesn't allow researcher to generalize general public because the sample is extremely small
what are advantages and limitations of surveys and interviews in studying sex?
questionares used to identify the attitudes, knowledge or behavior of large samples
-It's generalizable, large sample, person may share personal info because it is anonymous
- since they are are multiple choice/ fixed questions, the level of data is superficial so some ppl prefer to do interviews
why is Kinsey often referred to as the most influential sex researcher of the 20th Century?
his work changed many people's attitudes about sexuality and conducted studies of man and female sexual behaviors...sexual revolution
what was Kinsey's background? (i.e, what was his training, what was he famous for studying before he started studying human sexuality?)
He was a biologist/ zoologist. he was a professor at Indiana University who was internationally known for studying gall-wasp
what are advantages and limitations of interviews in studying sex?
face to face considered more confidential
-information is more detailed and
limitations -...samples will be smaller, not as generalizable
-participant may be too embarrassed to reveal personal info in an interview because she/he is not anonymous
what prompted Kinsey to begin studying human sexuality?
his students started coming to him with sex questions that he could not answer, and the existing lit was no help - so Kinsey started collecting data on his students' sex lives, and then his study broadened to include other students not in his classes, faculty, friends, and nonfaculty employees
what was Kinsey's methodology, and how/why did he train his interviewers?
created a coding system
to scope out deception and over emphasis
he tried to build in checks for false info, such as comparing data from husband and wife -
interviewers memorized the questions so instead of looking at notes they could build rapport with the participant to feel at ease....-lengthy interviews asking individuals about their sex history
know that in (?) Kinsey and his colleagues established the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research.
(1) what were Kinsey's two publications, and what did they reveal about sex?
(2) how were these publications received by the general public?
(1) published Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948), and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953)
the books were overnight bestsellers and debunked myths about sex -
(2) many sexual practices that had been seen as perverse were actually widely practiced, like masturbation, oral sex, gay sex -and very controversial instantly- male book was more of a success then woman book (it was seen as disrespectful, lewd literature)
How were these publications received by conservatives and religious organizations?
* findings: his findings angered conservative and religious organizations- ... conservatives which eventually led to him losing several research grants, and then him not being able to finish further research
was Kinsey able to finish his work on sexuality?
- No he lost his grants which frustarted him because it was hard to work without money
-He died before he could publish a book on homosexuality
(1) what is the NHSLS and why was it implemented?
(2) what did this study reveal?
(1) -National health and social life survey, Government funded study because of Aids epidemic
-wanted to know peoples sexual attitudes and practices
Most comprehensive/accurate study since Kinsey
(2) Since they used random sampling in a more effective way than Kinsey, They found that most Americans:
- are sexually conservative and ppl were having sex a few times a month or less
-have less than 3 sex partners over their lifetime and the sexual choices ppl make are restricted by their social networks
(1) what did Bell and Weinberg study, and
(2) what were their research findings?
(2) this research showed that the majority of gays do not fit the stereotypes -gays don't push unwanted sexual advances onto people; gays don't seduce or sexually assault kids - in fact, heterosexual men were found to be more likely to sexually abuse kids....proved that homosexuality is not a mental disorder
what is ethnographic research?
study small group, either by observing as participant or nonparticipant, either overt or covert in a natural setting...aka fieldwork research
(1) who were Masters and Johnson, and
(2) how did they study sex?
(1) * William Masters (gynecologist) and Virginia Johnson (psychology researcher) began their research in 1954 - they were interested mainly in the anatomy and physiology of sexual response and they also explored sexual dysfunction. They wanted to see what ppl were doing during sex
-had volunteers such as prostitutes
-hooked up stuff to their genitals to see how long the penis gets when stimulated vice versa for vagina
(2) * Masters and Johnson used clinical medical language bc of their disciplines
how do sex researchers try to ensure good ethics in their research?
Prove informed consent and that ppl did volunteer
Approval for research through=human subject committee/IRB
(1) what is volunteer bias, and
(2) how/why is this especially a challenge for sex researchers?
(1) * people who volunteer to be in a study (especially about sexuality) may somehow differ from those who do not volunteer - in sociology this is self-selection
(2) research has found that people who volunteer for sex studies on average tend to be more sexually liberal, more sexually experienced, more interested in sexual variety, more likely to have had sexual intercourse as well as oral sex, and have less traditional sexual attitudes than non-volunteers
how/why is reliability an issue for sex research?
* many studies rely on participants remembering past behaviors, but memory may be unreliable and people were less likely to admit
how is sex portrayed in the media?
(1) how did structural functionalism (aka systems theory) view sexuality? i.e., what were the roles of men and women in terms of sexuality?
(2) how did this theory view forms of family other than the two-parent heterosexual family?
(1) Men were "naturally" aggressors and always ready and willing to have sex, men continually pushed the boundaries, men were more experienced sexually...women were "naturally" more reticent and submissive and had to be coaxed into sexual situations. women enforced the boundaries. woman were pure. System functioned best only when heterosexuals married, had children together and raised them in two parent family homes.
(2) Viewed homosexuals and others who did not fit in this nuclear model as dysfunctional or deviant
how does conflict theory view sexuality?
argued that systems surrounding marriage, family and sexuality were not running smoothly as suggested in structural functionalist theory and the norms were harsh to many people.
-Pushed for social change, arguing that as long as sexual practices were conducted between consenting adults, they shouldn't be considered deviant, dysfunctional, or illegal
-Explained change very well but lacked explanations for stability
what does symbolic interaction theory focus on regarding sexuality? i.e, is this a macro or micro level of theory?
concerned with how individuals interacted sexually. They examined the meanings attached to sexual behaviors and how behavior changes based on interactions with others. They focus on a micro level of theory
what does social constructionist theory say about human sexuality?
through interaction, individuals create shared meanings that are reinforced by norms, laws, and social institutions. This theory helps understand why people label some components of sexuality "right" and others "wrong", and why there is pressure to conform to sexual norms.
how did/do feminist theory and queer theory challenge traditional social theorizing with regards to sexuality?
Feminism questions the way sexuality has been constructed and that they favor men in a variety of ways.
-Men controlled women's sexuality by defining it in masculine and heterosexual terms
-Men presumed to be initiators of sex and the sex itself is defined in terms or male performance
(Traditional theories tended not to place sexuality at center of theorizing but addressed sexuality within context of families, couples, relationships and deviance)
-Queer Theories argued that our culture has constructed heterosexuality and homosexuality as opposites, with heterosexuality given the label of good and homosexuality the label of bad or immoral.
-Queer theorists demonstrate how these sexual categories and identities are actually fluid and not necessarily natural
-Important to separate the sexual behaviors that people participate in from the moral judgments of those with power in a society.
what is intersectionality, and how/why is it important?
the ways in which a variety of statuses and characteristics intersect. This theory contended that not only does one's race affect the ways sexuality is experienced and perceived, but so does class, age, ability, sexual orientation, and nation.
its important because there can be no single perspective on black women's sexuality, poor women's sexuality, or the sexuality of women in non-western nations.
what was the Tuskegee Syphilis Study?
in 1932, the u.s. public health service initiated an experiment in Macon county, Alabama to determine the natural course of untreated, latent syphilis in black males.
who was being studied in this project?
Black males (sharecroppers, farmers, poor).
The test comprised 400 syphilitic men, as well as 200 uninfected men served as controls.
how did this study violate ethics? (i.e., were the subjects told the true purpose of the study?
The experimenters did not tell the subjects that they were not being experimented on. Even when penicillin was available, they did not treat the men.
what were other ethical violations in the Tuskegee Syphilis study?
• subjects not receive available treatment for a debilitating disease
•The Tuskegee victims were not informed -- in fact they were deliberately misinformed -- about the nature of the study in which they were participants
•Tuskegee study displayed racism
• failed to conform to the respect for persons, beneficence and justice
what is Simonds' and Jungels' sample? i.e., how did they conduct their research?
looking at different books explaining sex to children of different ages
They examined all of the androgynous, non-religious picture books about sex. (sample spans 40 years) 14 books for young children, 7 for adolescents, and 11 for parents.
according to the reading, what are some limitations with these books?
1. Brief anatomy lesson-- penis/vagina--> men and women grow older and have babies.
2. Represent penile-vaginal intercourse as the only encounter in which female and man engage. (sperm and egg)
3. Advocate tolerance but careful to avoid endorsing nonhetereosexual activities.
4. Self touches that feel good and touches that are good from others and NOT good (abuse).
(1) what were dildos historically used for?
(2) how did it become purely a sex toy?
as a treatment of hysteria or womb disease. Individuals began to purchase their own vibrators to use at home and it became a sexual toy in the 60s-70s.
(1) what is Alavi's methodology?
(2) what are her findings?
Methodology: Began with hypothesis discourse in regard to black male hyper-sexuality reflected in marketing of dildos.
Findings: Darker dildos = more realistic: Veins, pubic hair and scrotums. 1.25 inches longer than lighter dildos. Support idea African American men have larger penises
5.1 inches (average) regardless of race
Lighter dildos = pleasurable
Dark dildos = dangerous
Packaging: Black primary color in packaging of darker dildo.
Associate black and darker colors with sin, evil death or danger
what is the result of these differences in appearance and packaging? i.e., what is the message being conveyed about black men?
Racial discourse found in the sex industry.
-reinforce the stereotype that African American men are sexually aggressive.
-The way these "darker" dildos are constructed don't affect previous notions society have about African American males and their sexuality
what kind of approach does the U.S. generally take to sex education? (contraception? abstinence? both?)
how does the U.S. teen pregnancy rate compare to other industrialized nations?
The U.S. has the HIGHEST RATES in teen pregnancy.
how does the U.S. rate of STI's compare to other industrialized nations?
HIGHEST RATES in STD's
how does Denmark approach sex education and why?
The Danish government mandated the teaching of comprehensive sex education as part of the general school curriculum. The programs are pragmatic and straightforward without being graphic
how do Danish parents (on average) feel about teen sexual behavior?
how do Denmark and U.S. teens compare (on average) in their attitudes about mixing sex and alcohol?
U.S. teens-- they drink in order to lower their inhibitions to have sex.
Danish teens-- sex and alcohol are not a good match.
What is YANG, and how often were men and women encouraged to reach orgasm?
male sexual energy)- were encouraged not to ejaculate hardly ever-> saw it as a waste of sexual energy
how did the attitudes of Puritans begin to change after the Revolutionary War?
liberal sexual attitudes rised. Generally occured after most wars (Men were away and needed to get some while they were gone from wives for months-years and wives needed the company as well-had a mutual understanding)
- contraception became available
-newspapers promoted sexual issues, included recipes for abortion/almanacs, condoms
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