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Biology: Chapter 17 Test
Terms in this set (96)
group of individuals that can inter mate and have kids that can mate
formation of a new species from a prior species
when two groups from the same species are separated and cannot reproduce among them selves, and this can lead to a new species forming
How can one species lead into the formation of 2?
A group that has broke off the original pop. eventually gets its separate gene pool, therefore NS changes the species over time...the new gene pool forms and a new species is formed...a new gene pool consists of different traits
How does reproductive isolation lead to the formation of a new species?
because the groups cannot breed together, eventually one group will come up with a method of reproduction and the other group will have a different way of reproduction therefore they can only interbreed among each group!
What are the 3 ways we see reproductive isolation occurring?
an actual physical barrier like a mountain or ocean that
prevents the 2 groups from being able to mate!
When can geographic isolation occur?
when 2 groups have the potential to breed together
What was separating the 2 squirrels?
the grand canyon
The grand canyon acted as ___________ _________ with the squirrels.
a shift in the genetics of the population that is a random occurrence
Genetic drifts are based on NS.
Genetic drifts are random occurrences not based on NS.
How will the bottleneck effect create a new genetic population? Why might this not necessarily be the most fit or adapted species for the area?
Some type of catastrophic event creates a very small window where certain individuals survive. In a genetic bottleneck, the individuals who survive just happened to be in a situation who survived and now they are the future drivers of the population; it is a random group of organisms
How can the founders effect create new populations within an area?
A small group from your pop. moves to a new uninhabited area and starts thriving, and that new pop. individuals are going to be the same as the founders.
What is an example of the founders effect?
if there are red and blue lady bugs and the red lady bugs move away and start created a new community, the bugs are most likely going to be all red
How did the founders effect relate to Darwin's finches?
Darwin saw that a new founding group moved to the islands and over time as they moved from island to island and the habitats were different, so that lead to different variations of those species.
Genetic drifts occur in random chance events.
Bottleneck and Founder's effects are random acts that will change a population's genetics.
What is occurring within a population that is not evolving?
the idea that a population that is not undergoing evolution or NS will show the same ration of traits generation after generation after generation
Genetic drifts give us an idea about how things will stay the same, and gives us a mean about what would happen if there was no evolution.
Genetic equilibrium give us an idea about how things will stay the same, and gives us a mean about what would happen if there was no evolution.
Meiosis and fertilization are said to change the allele frequency of a population.
Meiosis and fertilization are said to NOT change the allele frequency of a population.
Meiosis and fertilization are said to NOT change the allele frequency of a population. How?
they simply randomize what genetic combination the offspring will get to prevent more or less clones every year
Sexual reproduction and crossing over doesn't change allele frequency, just the combination of the alleles.
What is the Hardy-Weinberg Principle?
the basic idea that allele frequency will stay the same because there are not actions acting upon it
What are the 5 things that could disrupt genetic equilibrium? (describe each one)
1. non-random mating: the same types of organisms are mating, females are going to select the most desired trait/adaptive trait so the desired trait or organisms that have that trait are going to increase and the opposite will go down
2.Small Population: changes can make more of a difference offsetting equilibrium more
3. Mutations: have the potential to disrupt the types of traits found since they can introduce a new trait...instead of having 3 traits you can have 4 traits and that new trait might be better and could increase or decrease an organism's fitness and the weaker one won't survive therefore their alleles won't be passed on upsetting equilibrium
4. Movement In or Out of the Population: changes the gene pool by adding genes or removing genes
5. Natural Selection: it weeds out the less adaptive trait
Single-gene traits can be directional, stabilizing, or disruptive.
Bottleneck and Founder's effects are random acts that will change a population's genetics.
Who was the monk who worked in a monastery, but was also the gardner who kept a pea garden?
Who helped show that traits are passed from parent to child, but also helped us understand what traits might be more predictable than others?
Gregor Mendel is compared to a ________, who explained how traits got passed on.
What did Mendel's experiments help us understand of Darwin's?
his theory of natural selection and how traits are actually passed on
The phenotype is going to give you the genotype.
The genotype is going to give you the phenotype.
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype is the genetic makeup, and phenotype is the physical makeup.
What are your chemical components that determine a trait called?
What is the variation of a gene that codes for a specific variation of a trait called?
What is an allele called that is most likely to show up in a genotype?
What is an allele called that will only show up when there is no dominant allele present?
What is the difference between a person who is homozygous vs a person who is heterozygous?
homozygous- person w/ the same alleles
heterozygous- person w/ different alleles
Natural selection chooses phenotype, not genotype.
Why does natural selection choose phenotype vs genotype?
Nature will select whatever the best physical adaptation is for the environment. If a trait is considered an advantage and nature selects the trait, then we can figure out the phenotypes that are chosen.
In natural selection, one will be able to see the phenotype that is chosen before the genotype.
What is all the allele present in a population for a trait called?
What happens if you don't introduce new genes to a population?
the gene pool will become stagnate and diseases and other things will be introduced
What is the amount of a specific allele in relation to the entire gene pool called?
What is a mutation?
a DNA error or a change in an organisms's DNA
What are the 2 types of mutations?
1. mutations in the allele
2. mutations in the chromosome
What are 3 ways that mutations can affect an organism's fitness?
1. decrease the organisms fitness
2. better the organisms fitness
3. does not do anything
How do mutations occur in the body?
when the DNA creates an error in the duplication process in the DNA
Where must mutations occur in order for a species to evoke?
in the sex cells
When does "crossing over" occur and why does it happen?
occurs when a similar pair of chromosomes exchange DNA; to increase the chance that the offspring will have a chance to survive
What is a homologous chromosome pair?
the normal pair of chromosomes
When does synapsis occur? What does it look like?
as the chromosomes move closer together; twisted chromosomes
What happens when the chromatids break?
genetic information is exchanged
Genetic recombination does not change allele frequency.
Allele frequency adds to genetic variation.
Cross overs add to genetic variation.
What are extra bits of DNA?
What are small spheres of DNA that codes for new genes?
Plasmids can be passed on to bacterial offspring.
Plasmids can't be passed on from one bacterial cell to another.
What is the exchange of genes from one organism to another who of which aren't related?
How could lateral exchange cause problems in the production/manufacturing of antibiotics?
When a bacteria cell becomes resistant, suddenly where one antibiotic was useful it might not be as useful anymore.
What is a single gene trait vs a polygenic trait?
single gene: a trait controlled by one gene
polygenic: a trait controlled by more than one gene
Eye colors would be the _______ and blue would be the _______.
The more genes you have, the more alleles you have.
If an allele is more common, then it is dominant.
There are more possible outcomes in a polygenic trait than a single trait.
Why are there more possible outcomes in a polygenic trait than a single gene trait?
The more genes you have, the more alleles you have, and the more combinations you can have to make different phenotypes.
On a graph, the number of polygenic traits tend to have a what type of curve?
Where can mutations occur?
at the allele or chromosome level
Bacteria creates variations by what?
lateral transfer of plasmids
What determines your adaptation and why?
alleles because those DNA molecules will determine what shows up
What is an adaptation?
a trait that can increase your fitness
What happens with a single gene trait and natural selection?
one trait will always become more abundant because it has the advantage and the other will become less abundant
What are the 3 different types of ways natural selection can act upon a trait that is controlled by multiple genes?
In what selection is the middle of the traits no longer the best traits to have?
In what selection does it shift in one direction to one extreme or another?
In what selection do more individuals support the middle phenotype?
In what selection does the graph become more in the middle?
In what selection does the graph become more in the extremes and a dip in the middle?
all the genes, including all the different alleles for each gene, that are present in a population at any one time
the number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool, compared to the total number of alleles in that pool for the same gene
a trait controlled by one gene that has two alleles
a trait controlled by 2 or more genes
a form of natural selection in which individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
a form of natural selection in which individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end of the curve
a form of natural selection in which individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle of the curve
What is a form of reproductive isolation when 2 species may act differently such as different mating techniques like mating calls and dances?
The eastern and western meadowlark were an example of what type of reproductive isolation?
What is temporal isolation?
a form of reproductive isolation where the species have different breeding seasons
How is temporal isolation not linked to where organisms live?
species can live in the same habitat but mate at different times so there is no fear of overlapping the mating between species
Describe the process of how the finches from Darwin's studies got to be so many different species.
1. Founders arrive: somehow finches got carried over to an island in the Galapagos
2. Geographic isolation: there is a gap between SA and the Galapagos so the birds cannot get back to their home because of this they started changing and so did their gene pool, then the birds start migrating to the other islands of the Galapagos
3. Changes in gene pool: the gene pools between the species change when they spread across multiple islands
4. Behavioral isolation: some of the species moved to the original Galapagos island they first arrived to and the attitudes and mating rituals were different
5. Competition and more evolution: the first four processes keep repeating
What helps us see how long a species has taken to evolved based on the mutations it has?
What is the complete genetic profile and set of genes of a species?
We can take genomes of separate organisms and observe the similarities and differences to see how far back a common ancestor is.
What is a ticking mutation?
mutations that happen at a steady rate
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