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20 terms

English Civil War I

First half of the English Civil War unit
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Absolute monarchy
The king or queen has complete control over all aspects of life.
Autocracy
Ruled by one person with unlimited power.
Plutocracy
Ruled by the wealthy or elite.
King James
Believed in divine right, extremely religious (created KJB), constantly asked Parliament for money, put England into debt by spending an exorbitant amount of money on the government, himself, and his advisers.
Puritans
Protestants who wanted to purify the Church of Catholic symbols, seen as traitors by King James.
Henrietta Maria
King Charles' wife, a Catholic and sister of French King Louis XIII.
Parliament
Made up of the House of Lords and House of Commons.
Short Parliament
Called for 3 weeks during Bishops' War, dominated by Puritans who sympathized with the Scots. Led to Charles dissolving Parliament for the third time.
Long Parliament
Called after Scots invaded, resulted in settlement and reform: abolished all taxation Parliament didn't approve of and sentenced Laud to death for treason
The Petition of Right
Parliament's demands in exchanges for war taxes, refused by Charles, leading to second dissolution: No loans or taxes w/o consent, no false imprisonment, no quartering of troops, and no martial law.
The Bishops' War
Caused by Archbishop Laud's Anglican prayer book, which angered Calvinist Scots. Included religious rebellions and invasion by Scots.
Irish Rebellion
October 1641- Irish Catholics led general uprising caused by anger at Anglican church and seizure of their land. Charles was blamed, asked Parliament for money, but they refused.
Royalists
Parliament members who supported the king and opposed Puritans
19 Propositions
Made Parliament England's supreme power, causing Charles to attack the House of Commons and prepare for war.
Archbishop Laud
Persecuted and denied the rights of Puritans, in charge of the Anglican church.
Martial law
Temporary military rule that limits individual rights.
Magna Carta
1215 document that stated that the king had no power to make random arrests, seize property, make decisions alone, or create taxes w/o Parliament's consent.
Political divisions
King vs. Parliament, fighting since 1215 (Magna Carta)
Religious divisions
Anglican vs. Puritan: both Protestant, Puritans think Anglicans are too Catholic
Ship Money
Tax used to improve the navy during wartime. Imposed on coastal counties. Eventually, it continued even in times of peace, and landlocked counties were taxed as well, drastically lowering participation and enthusiasm.