What is the normal oxygen content difference between arterial and venous blood?
Normal CaO2 is_________. Normal CvO2 is_________.
20 vol%; 15 vol%
The amount of oxygen extracted by the peripheral tissues during the period of 1 minute
Normal O2 Consumption
the amount of oxygen extracted by the peripheral tissues divided by the amount of O2 delivered to the peripheral cells
Oxygen extraction ratio
normal O2 extraction ratio
the portion of cardiac output that moves from the right side to the left side of the heart without being exposed to alveolar O2
exists when blood flows from the right side of the heart to the left side without coming in contact with an alveolus for gas exchange
What abnormalities cause anatomic shunting?
Congenital heart disease, Intrapulmonary fistula, and vacular lung tumors
A Capillary shunt is commonly caused by what?
Alveolar collapse or atelectasis, alveolar fluid accumulation, or alveolar consolidation
Common causes of a relative shunt
hypoventilation, ventilation/perfusion mismatches, and alveolar-capillary diffusion defects
The end result of pulmonary shunting and is the mixing of shunted, non-reoxygenated blood with reoxygenated blood distal to the alveoli
Pulmonary shunting below ____% reflects normal lung status. A shunt between_______% is indicative of an intrapulmonary abnormality,but is seldom of clinical significance. Pulmonary shunting between _______% denotes significant intrapulmonary disease and may be life threatening.