Anatomy & Physiology 1- Chap. 6 Bones and Skeletal Tissues

Bone Homeostasis: Femodeling and Repair
In adult skeletons, what is bone remodeling?
Total bone mass remains constant, rate of deposit and resorption are equal.
When doed bone deposit occure?
When bone is injured or added bone strength is required.
Bone remodeling requires a diet rich in what?
Priteins, vita. C, vita. D, vita A, and minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, maganese are a few).
What cells function in bone resorption?
Name two substances osteoclasts sectete?
Lysosomal enzymes and hydrochloric acid.
Bone resorption allows mineral of degraded bone matrix to move into the interstitial fluid and finally in to what?
The blood.
What are the important physiological processes that repuire calcium in the body?
Transmition of nerve impulses, muscle concentration, blood coagulation, secreation by glands and nerve cells, and cell division.
Describe the hormonal mechanism used to maintain the controls of blood calcium (what hormones, glands and structures).
Rase in calcitonin, and fall parathryoid hormone (PTH).
What is hypercalcemia?
Sustained high blood levels of Ca2+
What are some complications with hypercalcemia?
Undesirable deposits of calcium salts in blood vessels, kidneys and other soft organs, can hamper the organs.
In response to mechanical stress and gravity, what does the bone do?
It makes bones stronger where stressors are acting.
What is wolff's law?
A bone grow or remodels in response to the forces or demands placed upon it.
What are fractures?
Brakes in the bone.
What are the 4 classifications of bone fractures?
Posotion of the bone ends after fracture, completeness of the brake, orientation of the brake relative to the long axis of the bone, any penetration to the skin.
What is the difference between nondisplaced and displaced fractures?
Nondisplaced retain normal position, displaced is out of normal alignment.
What is the difference between complete and incomplete fractures?
Complete is broke all the way through and incomplete is not.
What is the difference between linear and transverse fractures?
Linear are parallel to the long axis and transverse are perpendicular.
What is the difference between open and closed fractures?
Open fractures break through the skin and closed do not.
What are some types of fractures?
Comminuted, compression, spiral, epiphyseal, depressed and greenstick.
What is meant by reduction?
The realignment of broken bone ends.
What is the difference between closed and open reduction?
Closed is realignment by hand and open is secured together surgically.
Name the 4 major stages for the repair of fractures.
A hematoma forms, fibrocartilaginous callus form, bony callus form, and bone remodeling occures.