World 2022 - Final Exam (World War 2, Cold War, Decolonization, Globaliztion)

Communism / Socialism
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Terms in this set (51)
Communism- a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.

Socialism - emerged prior to Marx and advocated for community control of just the means of production (factories, mines) and not all private businesses. Usually occurs gradually and not through a violent uprising.
Great Depression in the U.S and Europe

1929-1940. Germany failed to pay debts and German gov't printed more money leading to inflation

France and England struggled to repay U.S loans, weakening the american banking system and economy as a whole.

Slowing consumer spending in the 1920's or underconsumption led to rising unemployment, forecolsures, and bankruptcies.
German and Japanese quest for colonies or "Lebensraum" or living space. Germany sought lands for farming to feed a growing population and be less dependent on other nations.

Japan sought natural resources such as oil and coal to fuel their growing industries. Germany sought to obtain land taken from them after WWI as per the Treaty of Versailles
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman. Truman sought to limit allied casualties that would have occurred in a land invasion of Japan and to end the war in order to stop future Soviet Invasions of China, Japan and the rest of Asia.
Chinese Revolutionled by Mao Zedong, communists won the civil war against the Nationalists in 1949. Zedong ordered the nationalization of Chinese industries and created a five year plan based on the Soviet Model. Zedong embarked on a cultural revolution that silenced critics and ensured his hold on power. He ordered the Red Guards, groups of revolutionary students, to arrest teachers, students and political opponents and send them to re-education camps.Great Leap ForwardStarted by Mao Zedong, combined collective farms into People's Communes, failed because there was no incentive to work harder, ended after 2 years. Led to a Five Year plan and Cultural RevolutionDeng XiaopingLeader of China from 1976 to 1997 whose reforms essentially dismantled the communist elements of the Chinese economy. Let peasants grow their own crops and sell them in markets Led to agricultural surpluses instead of famines Factories could increase production for consumers Foreign companies allowed to set up factories in special economic zones in coastal areasDefinition of the Cold WarThe global balance of economic and political power shifted after the end of World War II. The democracy of the United States and the communist Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, A power struggle between capitalism and communism across the globe.Iron CurtainPhrase used by England's Winston Churchill to describe growing Soviet Influence in Europe. It was an imaginary line that divided east and western Europe. Eastern Europe was mostly made up of Soviet Communist Satellite nations like Poland and Hungary.Containment PolicyEstablished by the Truman administration in 1947 to contain Soviet influence to what it was at the end of World War II.NATO/Warsaw PactNATO-North Atlantic Treaty Organization-Alliance formed by democratic Western nations as and attempt to contain communism. Warsaw Pact-Soviets feel threatened and form a communist allianceKorean War (1950-1953)began as a civil war between North and South Korea (which had been established by the USSR and US respectively), but the conflict soon became international when, under U.S. leadership, the United Nations joined to support South Korea and China entered to aid North Korea. The war left Korea divided along the 38th parallel. The Korean War was an example of the U.S. Cold War policies of containment and militarization, setting the stage for the further enlargement of the U.S. defense perimeter in Asia (Vietnam)Ho Chi MinhCommunist leader of Vietnam. Sparked a war for indepenence against France in 1954. Initiated war with the South in an attempt to unify Vietnam under his Communist government. Fighting with the U.S backed south continued until 1975 when the Communist north seized control of the South.Domino Theory (Cold War)the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control. Was used to justify the war in Vietnam. The fear was that if Vietnam fell to communism so would Japan, India and other emerging asian nationsBerlin WallA wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the WestThe Arms RaceBoth the Soviet's and U.S had developed a hydrogen bomb by 1952. By 1959 the Soviet's and U.S had intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBM's that could deliver nuclear missiles. This sparked the Anti-Nuclear Weapon movement. In 1982, one million people demonstrated in New York. The ideology of Mutual Assured Destruction or MAD emerged that reasoned an Arms race prevented World War due to the fact that since neither side could win a nuclear war, neither side had an incentive to start one.Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by two or more opposing sides would cause the complete annihilation of both the attacker and the defenderMuhammad MossadeghIranian leader who nationalized the oil reserves leading to an American backed overthrow of his governmentMikael GorbachevProgressive Communist leader in 1985. Favored perestroika or attempts to allow for more free enterprise. He also supported Glasnost or the policy of granting more freedoms including elections. Under his leadership the U.S and Soviet's agreed to INF treaties that restricted intermediate range nuclear missiles. Gorbachev's actions ultimately led to the end of Communism in Russia and all of Eastern Europe. Evidence of factors that led to the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet UnionSoviet War in Afghanistan (1979)9 year war in which the USSR supported the Marxist-Leninist puppet government of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan while the US supported the mujahideen The U.S responded with stopping grain shipments. It marked an end to the peaceful period known as DETENTE. With the help of U.S military supplies, the Afghan people were able to push the Soviet Army out and regain control. The war weakened the Soviet's economically due to the embargoes and excess military spending. Evidence of factors that led to the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet UnioReasons for the end of the Soviet UnionGorbachev's reform efforts Soviet's Control of Eastern Europe led to high debt and bankrupted the government. A democratic reform movement swept through Eastern Europe in 1989 resulting in the tearing down of the Berlin Wall. In 1990, East and West Germany united as one democratic nation. The Warsaw Pact dissolved, Soviet Republics overthrew their rulers, and the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991.Pan Africanismthe principle or advocacy of the political union of all the indigenous inhabitants of Africa. 1950's and 60's). Celebration of African Unity, culture in the post colonial era Kwame NkrumahPan-African CongressA series of meetings that began in 1919. They were organized by people of African heritage living around the world and they led to a series of demands for African independence.Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana)First President of Ghana after gaining independence from England in 1957. Responsible for public works projects that included hydroelectric plants. Accused of running the country into debt due to corruption. In 1964 he claimed dictatorial powers. Vocal promoter of Pan Africanism and founded the Organization of African Unity or OAU in 1963. Was overthrown in a Coup in 1966 and foreigners were expelled.Provide Examples of colonies negotiating their independenceIndia - Indian people led by the Indian National Congress and Gandhi eventually were given independence from England in 1947. The Amristar massacre helped unite the Indian people against British rule Ghana - Kwame Nkrumah Egypt in 1922 from EnglandExamples of national leaders in Asia, the middle east and Africa who sought independence from imperial ruleGandhi in India. Leaders of the Negritude and Pan African movement in Africa. Mustafa Kemal and the Turkish nationaist movement. Pan Arab movement that sought autonomy and independence for arab statesExamples of the migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (the former colonizing country, usually in the major cities)Southeast Asians (India) to England and South America Algerians to France Filipinos to the United States Migrant groups maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires. Evidence of political changes accompanied by major demographic and social consequencesIranian Revolution of 1979Opposition to the Shah, Mohammad-Rezā Shāh Pahlavi, grew from the brutality, inefficiency, malfeasance, and corruption of his regime. The shah had exiled his main opponent, the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, and massive street demonstrations and crippling strikes against the existing government forces the shah to leave the country in 1979.Nelson MandelaIn response to South Africa's Apartheid discrimination and segregation policies that included the banning of mixed marriages and limits to jobs and travel. Mandela was the leader of the African National Congress and was imprisoned for his protest movement.. Their goals were to end discrimination and create a multi racial South Africa. The movement was mostly non violent. Evidence of many individuals and groups—including states—opposing conflict that dominated much of the 20th centuryApartheid MovementSouth African African Majority controlled by white minority (85% Black) Established Apartheid or Segregation policy. jobs and privileges reserved for whites Pass laws forced Africans to carry travel pass ports Separate communities and inter marriage prohibited Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress initiates protests in 1964. Mandela is jailed. International pressure and condemnation led to an end to apartheid laws in 1990 and Mandela is elected the first Black President in South Africa in 1994Arab Spring 2011A series of popular revolts and uprisings, toppling long-serving dictators in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya, that spread throughout the Arab world beginning in 2011. A major component for these swiftly changing events was the accessibility of Internet access and satellite television.Genocide in Darfur, SudanSudan in 2003 Arab Muslims controlled gov't leading to attacks on Non Arab farmers by Arab militants. Non Arab farmers took up arms in response to attacks by Arab militants in region of Darfur Muslim Gov't in response attacked villages and killed 200,000 non Arab Muslims with the help of the Janjaweed (Arab militants) International Criminal Court (UN) charged Sudanese President with war crimesBosnian GenocideBetween April 1992 and November 1995, Serbia set out to "ethnically cleanse" Bosnian territory by systematically killing Muslims and Croats. Orthodox Christian Serbia attempts to take over Muslim dominated Bosnia, leading to ethnic cleansing under Slobodan MilosovicRwandan Genocide (1994)Hatu majority took revenge against the minority Tutsis (were treated better under Belgian rule) by discriminating against them. Tutsis fled the counrty and formed a rebel army. During the Civil War, 500,000 to 1,000,000 civilians were killed (mostly Tutsis). Response from the United Nations and the U.S was limitedExamples of atrocities, acts of genocide, or ethnic violenceRwanda genocide German Holocaust Armenian Genocide - Bosnian Genocide - Darfur Genocidedescribe the emerging environmental challenges that emerged during the modern eraincreased deforestation, desertification, and increased consumption of the world's supply of fresh water and clean air humans competed over resources more intensely than ever before. the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere contributed to debates about the nature and causes of climate change and increased responses to these challengesParis Climate AccordAn agreement within the United Nations to deal with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020 Evidence of responses to environmental challengesGGreen Revolutioncientists developed new genetic engineered varieties of wheat, rice and other grains that were more resistant to disease and drought. Farmers have used more irrigation, fertilizers and pesticides. Effects of the Green Revolution and commercial agriculture - increased productivity and sustained the earth's growing population as it spread chemically and genetically modified forms of agriculture. Small farmers could not compete with large land owners and mechanized equipment put farm workers out of work. evidence of rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technologyIdentify responses to environmental challenges during the modern eraEarth Day, Greenpeace (organization that lobbies governments and educates the public. Best known for direct action that included confronting whaling boats), Paris Climate Accords in 2015Identify new medical innovations during the modern eraPolio vaccine, Artificial Heart, Anti-biotics Medical innovations, such as vaccines and antibiotics, increased the ability of humans to survive and live longer lives. I Evidence of rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technologyProvide Examples of new Energy technologies during the modern eraThe use of petroleum and nuclear power, raised productivity and increased the production of material goods. Solar EnergyDescribe the diseases of the modern eraInfluenza epidemic in 1917 after WWI, HIV AIDS , Alzeihmers, Ebola, Heart Disease Diseases associated with poverty persisted, while other diseases emerged as new epidemics and threats to human survival. In addition, increased longevity led to a higher incidence of certain diseases evidence of disease, scientific innovations, and conflict leading to demographic shifts.Provide Examples of movements used violence against civilians to achieve political aims during the modern eraAl Queda and ISIS, The IRA. - a militant organization of Irish nationalists who used terrorism and guerilla warfare in an effort to drive British forces from Northern Ireland and achieve a united independent Ireland. (Irish Republican Army) used terrorism against Northern Ireland Protestants who remained connected to England. Irish Catholics in Northern Ireland faced discrimination. 3,500 died in conflict between 1969 and 1994. IRA exploded bombs in London. Evidence of many individuals and groups—including states intensifying conflictNAFTANorth American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada.European UnionInternational organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members. Beginning in 2004, the European Union has granted EU citizens a freedom of movement and residence within the EU, and the term "immigrant" has since been used to refer to non-EU citizens The EU enacted to block the migration of non eu citizens through the Western Balkans and let in Europe only those migrants and refugees, who will get there by legal routes originating in Turkey. It was assumed that: the participating countries will forever stop the passage of migrants and refugees through their territory;