AP Euro Chapter 21 Vocab
Terms in this set (42)
Effects of Population and Migration on Industrialization
growth on labor force, cheap labor, overcrowding, bad sanitation crime, strain on resources.
Irish Famine 1845-1847
a period of mass starvation, disease and emigration in Ireland. Potato was a staple food for most poor, yet a disease rotted the fields, and many Irish suffered and came to work in industrial cities of Britain, or went to the colonies.
Railways affect on Industrialization
people could leave birthplace and seek employment elsewhere, cheaper and more rapid passage of raw materials and finished products, represented investments in capital goods rather than consumer goods.
Wage-Labor Force & Proletarianization
the social process whereby people move from being either an employer, unemployed or self-employed, to being employed as wage labor by an employer, which is the socioeconomic relationship between a worker and an employer, where the worker sells their labor under a formal or informal employment contract.
Confections affects on Artisan skills
artisans lost significant ownership of the means of production and control over the conduct of their own trades when they joined the wage labor force, however artisans generally prospered due to urbanization.
English reformers who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people.
Six Points of Chartism
a radical chartist movement aimed at persuading parliament to adopt this which would have brought about much parliamentary reform: universal male suffrage, no property qualifications to join parliament, annual parliaments, constituencies of equal size, payment of MPs, vote by secret ballot.
Factories affect on The Family Structure
father is the breadwinner, factory owners allowed fathers to employ wife and children as assistants, need for unskilled attendants of machines leads to employment of children and unmarried women because they would accept lower wages and not form unions, factory wages for skilled fathers sometimes allowed them to take children out of the factory and send them to school and to allow their wives to stay at home.
The English Factory Act of 1833
forbade the employment of children under the age of nine. It also limited child work hours to nine while offering basic education.
Factories affect on Women
did less skilled work when assisting their husbands in factories, unmarried women employed more because they accept lower wages and don't unionize, wives of skilled laborers relied on their husbands to be the breadwinners, often became employed as household staff, gender roles reinforced.
Sir Robert Peele
British politician who organized a permanent police force in London.
The British police force whose primary goal was the prevention of crime. Named after Sir Robert Peel, who introduced the legislation that created the force.
an old ship stripped of fittings and permanently moored, especially for use as storage or as a prison.
English response to overcrowded prisons, used as alternative to death penalty, prisoners were transported to Australia to work in labor camps for the term of their sentence.
a prison system designed to reform criminals and reduce expenses through the sale of items produced in workshops. Prisoners slept in solitary cells, marched in military formation to meals and workshops, and were forbidden to speak to each other at any time.
the prison reform system where prisoners were kept separated at all times
Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations
the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith. The book offers one of the world's first collected descriptions of what builds nations' wealth and is today a fundamental work in classical economics.
English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market.
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence.
Principles of Political Economy
in this, David Ricardo transformed the concepts of Malthus into the "iron laws of wages"; if wages were raised, more children would be produced, then more laborers less wage, less wage=less children: wages would always stay at min. level.
France under the rule of Louis Philippe. Only about 1/30 of adult males had the right to vote. Reflected the "stake in society" theory - that those should govern who have something to lose. Less landed aristocracy influence in government, less interest in govt. Led to more abuse of labor.
a German Customs Union that was a coalition of German states formed to manage tariffs and economic policies within their territories.
a theory in normative ethics holding that the proper course of action is the one that maximizes utility, usually defined as maximizing total benefit and reducing suffering or the negatives.
a British philosopher, jurist, and social reformer. He is regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Poor Law of 1834
Corrected some evils of old system but nothing on unemployment. To get relief must enter Poor House where gender segregation - break up families. Were dismal conditions and working class resented the notion of labor market.
Repeal of the British Corn Laws of 1846
Imposed high tariffs on imported grain British farmers and landowners benefited but tariffs made bread more expensive caused fierce debate repealed in 1846.
an economic system based on the premise that if capital voluntarily surrendered its ownership of the means of production to the state or the workers, unemployment and poverty would be abolished.
a French political and social movement of the first half of the 19th century, inspired by the ideas of Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon.
Robert Owen and New Harmony, Indiana
a Welsh social reformer and one of the founders of utopian socialism and the cooperative movement. In 1824, came to America to invest the bulk of his fortune in an experimental 1,000-member colony on the banks of Indiana's Wabash River, called New Harmony. New Harmony was to be a utopian, or ideal/perfect, society.
a French philosopher and an important early socialist thinker later associated with "utopian socialism". Credited with having originated the word feminism.
French politician and historian. A socialist who favored reforms, he called for the creation of cooperatives in order to guarantee employment for the urban poor.
absence of government and absolute freedom of the individual, regarded as a political ideal.
a French politician, the founder of Mutualist philosophy. He was the first person to declare himself an anarchist and is among its most influential theorists. He is considered by many to be the "father of anarchism"
a worldview of societal analysis that focuses on class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.
a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labor and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought.
a German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of Marxist theory, together with Karl Marx
a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs.
a political manifesto by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that laid out the program of the Communist League.
French Revolution of 1848
sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic.
was the first President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I.
Vienna Uprising & Louis Kossuth
the last uprising in the Austrian Revolution of 1848 also known as the October Revolution. a Hungarian lawyer, journalist, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary during the revolution of 1848-49.
Magyar liberals who wanted their aristocratic liberties guaranteed against the central government of Vienna; also led to the proposed "Magyarzation" of other eastern European ethnic groups by means of nationalism to create an independent Hungarian state within the Hapsburg domains.
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