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U.S. History Ch. 9 Progressive Era
Terms in this set (58)
were mainly middle class professional men and women who were educated. They wanted to restore the control of government back to the people.
Protect Social Welfare, Promote Moral Improvement, Create Economic reform, Foster Efficiency
Social Gospel Movement
Brought religion to the slums. Many Progressives thought that you had to have religion in your life to make your life better.
a neighborhood center in impoverished areas; prominent ones include Hull House (Chicago) and Henry Street Settlement (New York); tended to serve immigrants
Young Mens Christian Association - opened libraries and swimming pools for poor kids
Feed the poor with soup kitchens
instructed the poor immigrants on middle class values of hard work and temperance
social reformer who tried to help poor women and children in factories to improve their lives. As the general secretary of the national consumer League she lobbied for laws to help child labor.
Illinois factory Act 1893
State law that Florence Kelley helped get passed. It prohibited child labor and limited the hours women could work. It became a model for other states to follow.
is the banning of alcoholic beverages. Progressives saw alcohol as a social and moral evil.
The Women's Christian Temperance Union
started in 1874 was founded to end the drinking of alcohol in the U.S. . . . The W.C.T.U. was the largest women's group in the U.S. France Willard will take over control of the W.C.T.U. and make it into a national organization.
helped to create Kindergartens for immigrant children to keep them safe and off the streets while their parents worked. Visited prisons and asylums. Worked to have women's suffrage or the right to vote.
The Anti-Saloon League
created in 1895 to try to stop the sale/use of alcohol. Causes problems for immigrants. Many immigrant customs that were brought to the U.S. involved the drinking of alcohol. Saloons played an important role in immigrant lives because they were places people meet, cash paychecks, and find work.
Gives women the right to vote. W.C.T.U. helped get this amendment passed.
Journalist who wrote about the corrupt side of big business and government. They wrote their stories in magazines and newspapers.
Scientific Management or Taylorism
started by Frederick Winslow Taylor. Applies scientific methods to improve assembly line efficiency. Workers had to work faster and more efficient but they became exhausted. They were worked like machines and injuries and fatigue increased.
type of government that does not have an elected Mayor. The citizens elect commissioners who run different departments in the city. Commissioners pick a city manager who runs cities day to day business. Manager can be fired. First used in Galveston Texas
Robert M Lafollette
progressive Republican governor and Senator from Wisconsin. He was instrumental in getting rid of Political machines in Wisconsin.
allowed candidates to be chosen by the people of the state not by political parties which were run by political machines.
allowed people to have a special election to get rid of corruption or incompetent politicians before their term of office is over.
Australian ballot or Secret ballot
- allowed voters to vote in private. No one can see their ballot. Political machines could not tell how people voted.
allowed the voters of a state to introduce bills or legislation themselves to the state legislature.
allowed the voter to vote on important issues and not the legislators
1913 created the direct election of U.S. Senators by direct primaries. This took the power out of the political party's hands and helped to get rid of political machines.
1919 created the national prohibition. No more alcohol to be sold, made, or shipped to the U.S.
Only wealthy women could stay home. Poor women had to work. Paid less than men. Worked in factories but never in management. Some worked as Domestic servants -maids or cooks for wealthy people.
Their roles changed little. Still worked the farms, took care of children, tended to the home.
N.A.W.S.A. (National American Women's Suffrage Association)
helped fight for women's rights. Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton were early leaders of the association.
N.A.C.W. (National Association of Colored Women)
created in 1894. Josephine Ruffin was the leader. This organization helped colored women to manage nurseries, reading rooms, and Kindergartens.
a western state in 1869 decided to be the first state let women vote. In the 1890's other western states followed like Utah, Colorado, and Idaho.
Expedition Act 1903
made all anti- trust cases first priority in federal courts. Big business could no longer drag a case through the courts for years.
Department of Commerce and Labor
created to be a watch dog over big business.
Elkins Act 1903
made it illegal for railroads to use Rebates (give special customers special rates or kickbacks for using a certain railroad).
Hepburn Act 1906
a federal law that required the government to inspect all meats that are shipped across state lines. All meat and poultry plants had to be sanitary also.
Pure Food and Drug Act 1906
Federal law that forbids the manufacture, sale, or transportation of any impure or contaminated foods and patented medicines. All medicines had to be labeled and list all contents. It also required truth in labeling.
Roosevelt's Square Deal
was a plan to try and make everyone in America happy. It was designed to protect the common man from big business . There were 2 cases that showed how Roosevelt's Square deal worked.
1902 Coal miners' Strike
First time government backed workers. Miners went on strike. Wanted 20% raise, 9 hour work day, right to unionize. Mine owners refused. Pres Roosevelt threatened to take over mines if a compromise was not reached. Miners got 10% raise, 9 hour work day, but union was not recognized and could not strike again for three years.
Danbury Hatter Case 1902
workers went on strike and called for national boycott. Pres Roosevelt took them to court, said boycott was illegal because hurt other hat companies and retail stores. He won. Gov backed big business.
Upton Sinclair's "The Jungle"
book written by t famous Muckraker. His book showed how bad and unsanitary the meat packing plants were. The book helped to create the Meat Inspection Act and the pure food and Drug act.
Roosevelt and Conservation
First consercationist president. Wanted to help protect the natural resources of the U.S.
National Conservation Commission
created by Roosevelt. It was made up of 50 members who were close friends of the President. They all loved the outdoors. They came up with a plan to create a U.S. Forest Service to protect government controlled forest lands.
friend of Roosevelt's became the first chief of the forest Service. He believed that forests could be replanted so they were renewable resources. He wanted to keep large tracts of forest and grasslands under government control.
famous conservationist and friend of Roosevelt's wanted to preserve land. He created the Sierra Club (extreme conservation group). In 1903 Muir will create Yosemite National Park.
was a friend of Roosevelt and a famous landscape artist. His art work about the national parks especially Yellowstone helped to get the masses to support conservation in the U.S.
The New Lands Reclamation Act or National Reclamation Act 1902
western states were given lands by the federal government to sell to the public. Profits from the sell were used to fund large irrigation projects to build dams in western states. These water projects helped farmers and ranchers out west.
Roosevelt and Civil Rights
He did very little to help civil rights movement. He invited Booker T Washington to White House did not like W.E.B. Dubois
Progressive President William H. Taft (1908-1912)
Taft was handpicked by Roosevelt to replace him as President in 1908. well over 300 pounds. He got very little respect as President even though he was a bigger Trustbuster than Roosevelt. . He even created child labor laws which Roosevelt did not do and he created laws to protect workers.
Payne- Aldrich Tariff
A tariff that increased tax rates on imported goods. Taft backed the tariff though many Progressives in his party did not. This will cause a split in the Republican Party.
named Secretary of Interior under Taft. was not a conservationist. He wanted to take government lands and lease it to private companies. Eventually had to be fired.
Mann- Elkins Act
A federal law passed under Taft administration. It gave the I.C.C.the power to regulate the communication industry in the U.S. (telegraph and telephone).
plan by Roosevelt to expand the powers of the federal government especially the Executive branch. He wanted to take care of the welfare or the people.
The Bull Moose Party
was the name of the 3rd party created by Roosevelt. It was a Progressive party. Roosevelt will split the Republican vote.
Progressive President Woodrow Wilson (1912- 1920)
Democrat who won the election against Roosevelt. Very intelegent man.
New freedom Program
program created by Wilson to lower tariff taxes. He wanted U.S. Business to compete with foreign competition. He thought it would help get consumers lower prices for their goods.
Clayton anti- trust act 1914
passed to strengthen the Sherman anti- trust act. No corporation could buy stock of another corporation for the sole purpose to create a monopoly. . The law also allowed unions to organize and had the right to strike, picket and boycott.
Federal trade Commission 1914
setup to be a watchdog agency to investigate any illegal activities by big business. The F.T.C. also halted illegal advertising.
The Underwood Tariff Act 1913
Lower tariff for the first time in 50 years. The government now had less money so it had to create personal income taxes to make up the difference.
The Federal Reserve Banking Act 1913
Federal law created under Wilson's administration that will make it easier for banks to get money. It created the 12 Federal Banking districts in the U.S. Each district has a central bank to make deposits or to create money when it is needed. These were banker's banks. The average Joe citizen did not do business with the Federal Reserve. This was called Wilson greatest accomplishment as President.
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