Music History Comps

Terms in this set (305)

Baroque- vocal-instrumental concerto "sacred symphonies" by Heinrich Schütz. Three books.
- Contains poyphonic Latin motets, with harmonic novelties and madrigal-like word painting.
- Show his changing style. Uses basso continuo, a consort of viols, and voices. Sometimes solo, others, choir. Not labeled but clear from the score. On sacred texts, but not liturgical.
- First volume: Latin texts. Concerted Latin motets for various small combos of voices and instruments. Influence of Monteverdi and Grandi, combining recite, aria, and concerted madrigal styles.
- Second (1647)- solo concerti with obbligato instruments and based on German biblical texts.
- Third (1650)- also based on German texts. After 30 year war (1618-1658), so used large forces again: 2 choirs doubled by instruments, six solo voices, 2 violins and b.c.. Combines polychoral style of Gabrieli with dissonant rhetoric of Monteverdi.
Ex: "Saul, was verfolgst du mich" - concerto. When Saul on the way to Damascus to get Christian prisoners is stopped by the voice of Christ calling to him "Saul, why do you persecute me?" So he converts to Christianity, changes his name to Paul and devotes himself to spreading the Gospel.
- use of MUSICAL FIGURES to convey meaning of works. (harsh cadential note, harsh leap)
The three collections influenced by his trio to Italy and study with Monteverdi. Abandoned old church modes. Schütz wanted to wed Italian style with the German. This is considered one of the most important compositions of the 17th century, a monument to German composition before Bach.
Baroque opera (tragedy en musique) by Jean-Baptiste Lully, combines French drama with ballet, French chanson, new recite form. Genre invented by Lully and Quinault, the librettist. Based on Tasso's La Gerusalemme liberata. Lully's masterpiece. Synopsis: During 1st Crusade, Armide, sorceress, captures her enemy, knight Renaud with her spells. Wants to kill him, but falls in love with him. Casts a spell to make him love her too. Unhappy that he only loves her cause of the spell, so calls on the Goddess of Hate to restore her hatred for Renaud, but can't hate him. Two of Renaud's soldiers reach Renaud and break Armide's spell. Renaud escapes from Armide.
. Ouverture was played twice--before and after the prologue. Slow, pompous, dotted section, followed by faster, often loosely fugal section. This became the classical model for French overtures by composers in Germany and England (Handel, Purcell, Bach, Telemann, etc.).
Orchestra: grand choeur: 5-part strings, doubled by oboes and bassoons. Petit choeur: about ten of the best players, including violins, flutes, theorboes, bass viols, harpsichords). The chorus was also divided in this way. The instrumentation is often not clear.
Vocal style: no clear distinction between recit. and aria. Declamatory style predominates. Read Quantz quote. Most recitative has the meter constantly changing to reflect the accentuation and different numbers of syllables per line (in terms of feet as in classical meters). This was developed by Lully. Listened to the way that actors spoke their lines. Récitatif ordinaire--with just b.c. Beginning in 1679 used much accompanied recit.--more intense musical expression. Often has long passages where the meter doesn't change. Called récitatif mesuré.
Airs: often still declamatory. May be dance airs or not. When instruments are used they come from the petite choeur.
Italian "sounded"- relative of canzona, consisting of a series of sections based on diff subject. Like canzona, sonata was used at Mass or Vespers as intro or postlude or to accompany rituals.
Ex: Gabrieli's Sacrae Symphoniae"- among first instrumental ensemble pieces to designate specific instruments in printed parts. Also, indications of dynamics.
- 17th century: any piece for instruments.
- Came to designate composition that resembled a canzona in form, but had special characteristics:
- Sonatas scored for 1-2 melody instruments, usually violins with b.c., while canzona- for 4+ parts, could be played w/o b.c.
- Sonatas were idiomatic of particular instruments, imitated modern expressive vocal style, while canzona more like formal, abstract Renaissance polyphony.
- First half of the 17th century: sonatas consisted of several small sections with different musical material, texture, mood, character, better, tempo, etc.
- Later in 17th century- these sections became longer and were separated into movements.
- By 1660: 2 types of sonata: da camera and da chiesa (chamber and church)
- Germany: Muffat, Buxteude, other German composers took up trio sonata, solo sonata attracted more interest.
- Heinrich Biber's "Mystery" (or Rosary) Sonatas for Violin (ca. 1675) - represent meditations on episodes in life of Christ. --> Use scordatura (unusual tunings of violins stings to facilitate playing of some notes/ chords). Interspersed rhapsodic mvts or toccata-like sections in sonatas. Longer mvts in form of passacaglia or theme and variations (like Biber's Passacaglia for unaccompanied solo violin).
- 17th century sonatas: strictly ensemble music, until Kuhnau transferred the genre to keyboard. (1660-1722)
theatrical piece, a piece in the genere rappresentativo, and was intended to be staged and acted out. 3 singers: a narrator (testo), Tancredi, a Christian knight in the time of the Crusades in the 11th c., and Clorinda, a Muslim woman warrior dressed as a man whom he fights. In Bk. 8, he suggests that it should be performed after several normal madrigals "without gestures". Clorinda should be armed, Tancredi armed and mounted on a horse, and that they should act out the story while singing it (basically they should mime the action). This text is taken from "Jerusalem Liberated" by Torquato Tasso, a long epic poem about the Crusades published in 1581.
Story: during the First Crusade. Tancredi is a Crusader among a band of Crusaders trying to conquer Jerusalem. Clorinda is trying to defend Jerusalem from the Crusaders. In Tasso, before our text picks up, it turns out that Clorinda's parents were actually Christians. Tancredi has seen her once without her helmet, and fallen in love with her. Just before the Combattimento begins, she and a male warrior have inflicted a severe blow on the Christians.
During his battle with her, he doesn't recognize her with her battle gear on, and only recognizes her when her helmet is removed towards the end. Once he has inflicted the mortal blow and she is dying, she embraces Christianity. He baptizes her with some water from a stream.
Also, in the Preface he describes the original performance of the Combattimento in 1624:
To perform a better experiment (in stile concitato), I seized upon the divine Tasso as a poet who in his text extresses with perfect suitability and naturalness all the passions he wishes to describe, and I hit upon the description he makes of the combat between Tancredi and Clorinda, so that I wouldhave the two contrary passions to set to music, that is, war, supplication and death. And then in the year 1624, when I performed it before the best people of the noble city of Venice in a noble room in the home of the illustrious and excellent Girolamo Mocenigo, a foremost nobleman who is among the leaders of the Most Sereve Republic and my special patron and obliging protector, it was listened to with great applause and praised."

Aside from the stile concitato in the piece (have them find one ex.) it also imitates the horses, swords, etc.
Borrowing from the whole of the fabric of a polyphonic work. At first, these borrowings usually came from the tenor of the model (the Cantus Firmus mass), though the possibility of drawing on more than one part always existed. When composers mastered the CF technique, it was a natural and easy step to lift the surrounding material. Though thought of as a late Renaissance practice when it flourished, multiple borrowings can be traced back to the beginnings of cyclic mass composition on secular models, such as the Missa Se la face ay pale of Dufay. The borrowings could be quoted literally, paraphrased or presented in a combination of the two. In general, composers were very consistent in their use of these three techniques and their use can be seen as an important and characteristic trait of their style. It was more common to use the CF and incorporate other parts incidentally, either as separate melodic entries or in the contrapuntal relationships found in the model. The master composers of the second half of the 15th century including Obrecht, Josquin, Isaac as well as lesser composers all incorporate the technique of using a tenor CF with supplementary borrowings in their compositions and the technique continued well into the 16th century. The slightly later generation of Jean Mouton, Antoine de Fevin took this further, taking a Latin motet as their model more often (rather than a French chanson) and treating it as an integral polyphonic entity and not just a musical source to be exploited. By 1520,the imitation mass gained dominance over the CF technique.
Minuet, Gavotte, has
an identity. Gavotte= I've got moves kind of dance.
1. Minuet
2. Gavotte
3. Singende Allegro = instrumental music that sounds vocal.
4. March
4.5: Drone: Peasant sound
5. Turkish Sound- sounds exotic, a lot of cymbals, bells
6. OPERA SERIA: a sound you can pull out and site.
7. Opera Buffa: it's a sound you can reference and have dramatic depth. Tells you what the character is thinking.
8. Bariolage- one note stays the same, alternating with a moving note. Makes the sound virtuosic, while maintaining a slow harmonic rhythm. Another strategy of binary form- bringing in old material, but still assembled from blocks.
9. Fantasía: prose and improvisation. TOPIC.
Beethoven: • Op. 131- 7 mvts - unqual in size/ weight. Quartet in c# minor.
o TOPICS - clash together!
• 1- fugue (science- churchy, intellectual, studied, learned.) (c#)
• 2 - Singende Allegro (D maj)
• 3- recit = theater/ stage. (D maj)
• 4 - theme and variation (A maj). Big separation
• 5- Scherzo (E maj)
• 6- slow mvt (g#)
• 7. Sonata Allegro. (c#)
Stile Antico (Mozart Quartet in G. Maj, K. 387 mvt 4), also Haydn Symphony Op. 104, Also Corelli in Baroque- in concerto grosso.
March (K. 551 Jupiter)
Singende allegro (K. 551 Jupiter)
Masonic writing: "O isis und Osiris"- Sarastro/ Zoroaster"
Opera buffa: Sympony in C maj K. 551 mvt 1 in Cl
Strum und drang - storm and struggle. Originally a literary movement in Germany. Music in minor key, fast, driving, but slow harmonic rhythm? (ex: F# minor symphony- Farewell symphony)
Fantasia: Concerto in Eb, K. 271 Mvt 1- Expo Cl #2.
- Monothematicism (Haydn)
- thematische Arbeit:
The isorhythmic motet of the 15th century is characterized by the presence of a cantus firms in the tenor and the voices structured around it, as evidenced by Dunstable's Veni Sancta Spiritus. Often, there would be two texts set simultaneously as is the case with Veni Sancta Spiritus. The isorhythmic motet is also built on the principles of talea and color and the proportional relationships formed by diminution of note values. Often these proportional relationships are symbolic, as evidenced by the famous Nuper rosarum flores, Dufay's motet whose proportions seem to match those of the Temple of Solomon (6:4:2:3).
With the unification of the cyclic Mass in the 15th century, many of its structural components can be attributed to the isorhythmic motet. One of the main aspects is the use of a cantus firmus or a pre-existing tune in the tenor. Some masses use the cantus firmus in the supers as well, and it's often paraphrased. (Duff's motet "Nuper rosarum flores" has 2 tenors singing the c.f. in imitation.) Another technique borrowed from the motet is beginning with a duet (as in Binchoi's Duel angles motet) and differentiation the texture between two, three, and four voices. Often, masses will use a head motive to paraphrase the cantus firmus that then enters in the tenor voice.
Another element used in the cyclic mass is that of imitation, especially when cantus firmus is not present, as in the case of Missa Prolationem of Ockeghem. Imitation becomes the unifying element more and more, as opposed to solely the cactus firms. Furthermore, paraphrases and other treatments of the cactus firms become popular and are inherited from the motet, such as using retrograde motion of the cactus firms (Missa L'homme army), which was used to symbolize the action of going and returning, death and resurrection, heaven and hell. Uses of proportions were also largely retained, though towards the later period, imitation was one of the main elements that kept the cyclic mass together and the use of the cants firms became considered old fashioned.
- Grouping music for Mass Ordinary into cycles goes back to the 13th century: there were cycles of Ordinary chants.
- 14th century: scribes sometimes grouped polyphonic settings of the Mass Ordinary. But they weren't musically related.
- Until about 1420, Mass Ordinary was set as separate pieces (except Machaut, a few others). though sometimes, a compiled would group them.
- During 15th century: standard practice for composers to set Ordinary as a coherent whole. Led by Dunstable and Leonel Power.
- At first, composers linked 2 mvts: Gloria and Credo.
- Later, included all 5 main items of the Ordinary (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei = polyphonic mass cycle.
- 15th century: composers had a variety of ways to link sections of mass together:
1) stylistic coherence: freely composed or based on paraphrased chants in upper voice or using a c.f.
2) Plainsong mass: Mass in which each movement is based on an existing chant for that text. Borrowed melodies were all liturgically appropriate, though not necessarily musically related.
3) Motto mass: using same thematic material in all mvts of the mass (head-motive)
4) Four-voice texture: Early c.f. masses were 3 voices. Lowest voice had to be the harmonic foundation, esp at cadences, but couldn't if it had the melody, so they added a contravener bassos (low contravener -- > bassus)
4) Cantus Firmus Mass: (ex: Dufay's Missa Se la face ay pale) combines with head motive, sometimes supersedes it. Started with English composers, then went tot he continent. By second half of 15th century- this is principal type of mass. Tenor- similar to isorhythmic motet- in long notes in an isorhythmic pattern. If melody = chant, a rhythm imposed on it. Why c.f. mass? Commissioned for specific events. A particular chant/ chanson used as a c.f. could refer to the saint/ person to whom the mass was addressed.
- most- 4 voices. after Dufay, with Ockeghem and Busboys, voices cover wider ranges.
- Ockeghem in C.F. Masses- freely changes c.f., adding notes, changes rhythm, gives tenor a character closer to other voices than before in Dufay's mass. Most phrases are long, cadences frequently overlapped by other vv, continuous flow.
- structure determined by the text.
- lined that were singable and equal in importance.
- quest for full harmonies, vocal melodies, motivic relationships --> compose phrase by phrase, rather than layering vv around cantus- tenor duet.
- Foundational role or tenor replaced by the bass.
- Full triadic sonorities dominated, began to replace open fifths and octaves at cadences.
imitation used more, point of imitation. (Obrecht)
- most masses use secular tine as c.f. Ex: Missa L'homme armé super voces musicales. Transposed tune to successive degrees of the hexachord: C Kyrice, D Gloria, etc. Mensuration canon in Agnus Dei.
- ex: Missa Hercules dux Ferrariae. Used Soggetto Cavato (carved out subject) using vowels indicate syllable of hexachord. re ut re ut re fa mi re.
5) Imitation Mass/ Parody mass: Instead of using one voice as a c.f., composer borrows from ALL voices of the model, reworking its characteristic motives, points of imitation, and structure in each mvt of the mass.
6) Paraphrase mass: similar to imitation, but uses monophonic chant instead of a polyphonic model, paraphrasing it in all voices in whole or part in each mvt.
- 15th century, chanson= any polyphonic setting of a French secular poem.
- Often set stylized love poems
- Common form: rondeau (ABaAabAB)
- Binchois, most important composer at the court of Philip the Good in Burgundy.
Burgundian Chanson:
- Most compositions from hits era are in 3/4 or 6/8.
- Cantus declaims text clearly.
Setting is mostly syllabic, especially at the beginning of each line of poetry.
- Longer melismas only at the most important cadences (while more frequent melismas in 14th century songs).
- Main melody in cantus is fluid and gently arching. Tenor smooth but slower. Two voices form counterpoint mostly in 6ths and 3rds.
- Contratenor is full of skips and leaps to fill the harmony.
- Music almost all consonants, few dissonances as passing tones, neighbor tones or suspensions.
- Triadic skips in cantus and contratenor reflect influence of English music.

- Reflect blending of national traits because Dufay traveled a lot- Italian, English, Burgundian, French
- French characteristics: ballade form (aab with refrain), many long melismas, frequent syncopations, some free dissonances. countertenor leaps to fill harmony (like earlier French chansons)
- English characteristics (ex: Se la face ay pale): Both tenor and cantus are equally tuneful,
- Italian: melodies primarily syllabic with brief melisma with brief
- Frequent syncopations and constantly varying rhythms = influence of French Ars nova = rhythmic energy.
- consonant harmony throughout, very few dissonances, only suspensions or ornamental tones.
- DIFF: chanson is no longer fixed form of the ballade (aab), but is FREELY COMPOSED.
- OLD like previous gen: most are for 3 vv, treble-dominated style, use formes fixes, esp. rondeau form. Still smooth, arching melodies, long phrases, lightly syncopated rhythms, consonance, careful dissonance treatment, thirds and sixths, mensuration canons (Missa prolationum).
- longer-breathed melodies, increased use of imitation, more equality of voices, more use of duple meter, freer treatment of borrowed material.
- Countertenor- more smooth and singable, more similar to other vv.
ex: Busnoys, Je ne pois vivre
- structure determined by the text.
- lined that were singable and equal in importance.
- quest for full harmonies, vocal melodies, motivic relationships --> compose phrase by phrase, rather than layering vv around cantus- tenor duet.
- Foundational role or tenor replaced by the bass.
- Full triadic sonorities dominated, began to replace open fifths and octaves at cadences.
- breaking away from formes fixes, so chansons in new shapes.
- Instead, chose strophic texts and simple 4 or 5 line poems.
- chansons increase from 3 to 4 voices
- Texture is treated with imitation and homophony.
ex: Josquin, Mille regretz. Every voice is essential (unlike Dufay and Ockeghem)
- Each phrase has its own treatment.
1) Motet began more as a work of poetry than composition: fitting new text to an existing piece of music. Used organum with discant sections used rhythmic modes, and had clausulae inserted in discant style. Early 13th century, composers would add words to the upper voices, either latin or French (motet = mot = word). Based on these discant clausulae.
2) They'd further develop the motet by adding voices. (First- 2 voices, then with 3 or 4 voices.)
3) adding different texts to all the voices, didn't have to be related
4) getting rid of original duplum and making up their own motet
5) Took just the tenor melodies from Notre Dame Clausulae and invent their own rhythm.
6) took other melodies, not from the clausulae and made those into cantus firmus
7) wanted more rhythmic independence, so relied less on rhythmic modes.
8) Franco of Cologue invented "Fnanconian notation" or rhythms- resembles ours today.
9) needed to change how pieces looked on the page, cause wasted space with upper parts being texted, taking up space, and tenor had wasted space. So wrote in separate parts, not in score, like before.
10) Franconia motet: Less pattern repetition, more rhythmic independence. Slower to accommodate the semibreves in upper parts. Voices rarely cadence together.
4ths by later in 13th century treated more as a dissonance. (earlier- consonance)
Cadence: tenor descends by step, upper voices rising by step (6 --> 8).
-Composers in the 13th century added newly written Latin words to the upper voices of discant clausulae. Resulting piece= motet. Later in the century, composer poets and composers developed new forms of the motet, with French words, secular topics, 3+ vv, rhythmic patterns free of rhythmic modes.
Early motet ex: Factum est salutare/ Dominus
Before motet, the was the Notre Dame school of polyphony. 2 main types of polyphony: "Organum" and "Discant". Organum had the tenor taken from chant in long notes and the superius in melismatic faster values above. Discant passages had rhythmic modes for both tenor and superius. They liked discant so much, that they'd change certain sections of existing organum with substitute clausulae (phrases) in discant style (Perotin).

Motet: new genre in early 13th century, more about the poetry- fitting new text to an existing piece of music - done by adding newly written Latin words to the upper voices of discant clausulae, like texts added to chant melismas. (motets from mot, word).
Later in century, they developed other forms of motet, some with French words, secular topics, 3+ voices, or rhythmic patterns free of rhythmic modes.

- Based on discant clausulae
- Different text in each voice, so compound title
- Many allusions to original chant and its words from a psalm, and the original clausula.
- Could be used for Mass or for other occasions, like entertainment. S became a genre independent of church performance and tenor lost liturgical functions, became supporting framework for upper voice(s)

1) composers write different text for the duplum, Latin or french, doesn't need to be linked to chant text, often secular
2) Add 3th or 4th voice
3) Giving additional parts their own texts to create a double motet (2 texts above the tenor) or triple motet (3 texts above tenor)
4) Deleting original duplum and writing one+ new voices, each with own text.
5) OR composers wrote motets from scratch, taking tenor melodies from Notre Dame clausula in a new rhythmic pattern, wrote new voices.

~By 1250: 3-voice motets- standard. With 2 texts on related topics in Latin or French or both.
- After midcentury, composers drew motet tenor melodies from sources other than Notre Dame clausulae, including other chants and secular music.
- Tenor became a Cantus Firmus = existing melody, on which new polyphonic work is based.
- Moved away from adding text to a clausula with pre-existing rhythms from modes, so needed new rhythmic notation.
- Later motets didn't follow rhythmic modes as closely: subdivided many notes, more complex rhythms, so needed new notation.
FRANCONIAN NOTATION INVENTED - treatise Ars Cantus mensurabilis: by Franco Cologne (composer and theorist) - codified new system, like the Western notation. Double long, long, breve, semibreve.
- Change in motet style and notation - new way of writing the music on the score. Before, scribes wrote earliest motets in a score. Then, when upper voices with each syllable needing a separate note took up more room than tenor, so you'd have long vacant stretches in the tenor staff = waste of space and parchment. So started writing things out separately on the page. with upper voices on facing pages or in separate columns on the same page, and tenor across the bottom. This= standard till 16th century.
- HARMONIC= 6-8 cadences with tenor moving down by step, upper voice up by step. A fourth above a lowest note began to be treated as a dissonance.
- "Motet," in earlier times (Ars Nova) was a secular piece in French that used two or more different texts simultaneously, while in later eras (16th century) it was a sacred piece in Latin with the same text for all parts.
8) MADRIGAL(Italian)- most important secular genre in the Renaissance.
- 16th century Madrigal: Most texts- single stanza with 7 or 11 syllable lines and either standard or free rhyme scheme. o refrains or repeated lines = DIFF from 14th century madrigal.
- Through composed = new music for every line of poetry.
- Variety of homophonic and contrapuntal textures, overlapping sections, each based on a single phrase of text, all voices equal roles.
- Aimed to match artfulness of poetry and to convey its ideas, images, and emotions.
- most early madrigals in early 16th century: 4 voices. By midcentury, five voices became the role.
- Ex: Verdelot (early madrigalist 1480-1530): 4 vv madrigals, mostly homophonic, one endings with cadences like frontal. His 5-6 vv madrigals more motet like with imitation, varying voice groupings, overlapping parts at cadences.
- Ex: Arcadelt: (1507-1568): mixes homophony and imitation. Ex: Il bianco e dolce cigno. about a swan's
"death" (little).
- Ex: Adrian Willaert: "Aspro core e selvaggio" Associated w/ Petrarchan mvt, , expressed harsh or sweet text with appropriate music. Diff: associated maj 3rd and 6th with harshness and bitterness, and minor intervals with sweetness and with grief.
MIDCENRUTY MADRIGALS: 5 vv, freq changes in texture. Alternate homophony and imitative/ free polyphony.
- Ex: Cipriano de Rore: (1516-1565) "Da le belle contrade d'oriente." Flemish, madrigals show his interest in humanist. Every detail of music had rhythm, sense, feeling of poem. Accented syllables receive longer notes, sometimes created syncopations.
- Chromaticism to express sorrow (New! Zarlino said chromaticism = ok, citing Greeks).
- Ex: Luca Marenzio (1553-1599) "Solo e pensoso". Madrigalisms: striking musical images, evoking the text literally
- Ex: Carl Gesualdo (1561-1613): "Io part" e non più dissi Dramatized poetry through contrasts b/n diatonic and chromatic passages, dissonance and consonance, chordal and imitative textures, slow moving and active rhythms. "

IMPORTANCE: Italian madrigal and its offshoots (French Chansons, German Lieder, English madrigals) - all explored declamation, expression, depiction of words = reflect growing influence of Humanism in Renaissance. Also, introduced idea of music as a dramatic art, led to dominance of Italian music in Baroque.
Best-known Italian composer of early 18th century.
- composed opera, cantatas, sacred music, and CONCERTOS are his main thing - wrote ~500.
- Achieved a large range of colors and sonorities through different groupings of solo and orchestral instruments.
- Conservative works: trio and solo sonatas, in the style of Corelli; most of his concertos
- PROFRESSIVE WORKS: solo concerto finales, orchestral concertos, and most of the 16 sinfonia- which establish Vivaldi as founder of the Classic SYMPHONY.
- ~ 350 SOLO CONCERTOS for one solo,
- concertos for 2 solos (Diff form Corelli's concerti grossi, where orchestra doubles and reinforces concertino of 2 vls+cello)
- EX: "THE FOUR SEASONS": first 4 concertos in Op. 8. Each accompanied by a sonnet that describes the season, and concertos depict the images in poetry, using ritornello forms.
1) opening fast movement
2) slow mvt in the same/ closely related key (relative minor, dominant or subdominant). Vivaldi- 1st composer to make slow mvt as important as the fast one. Cantabile melody with rich figuration, and expected to add more embellishments.
3) Last mvt in the tonic, shorter and sprightlier than the first.
--> This formula established the standard for concertos.
- Expands on Torelli's structure of a da capo aria with a ritornello at the beginning, middle and end with 2 long episodes for soloist: Vivaldi's produces RITORNELLO FORM.

- codification of ritornello form = model for later concerto composers.
- Clarity of form, rhythmic vitality, logical flow of musical ideas.
Influenced J.S. Bach
(1683-1765) Baroque organist, music theorist, composer.
- His writings founded the theory of tonal music,
- His operas established him as Lully's most important successor.
Wrote "Traité de l'harmonie (Treatise on Harmony), one of the most influential theoretical works ever written
- Looked at harmony from pt. of view of laws of acoustics
- triad and 7th chord- primal elements of music.
- Fundamental tone (root)--> chords keep identity through inversions, harmony is defined by the root progression rather than by the lowest note sounding.
- coined term "tonic", "dominant" and "subdominant," established them as pillars of tonality, related other chords to them, formulating hierarchies of functional tonality.
- Seventh chords keep music moving till cadence is reached

WORKS- Opera:
- Hippolyte et Aricie
- Les Indes galantes
- Castor et Pollux
- Platée (comedy)
- Zoroaste (tragic opera), most important of Rameau's later works.
- Rameau LIKE Lully:
1) realistic declamation, precise rhythmic notation in the recite
2) mix recite with more tuneful, formally organized airs, choruses, and instrumental interludes
3) both include long divertissements
- Rameau UNLIKE Lully:
1) All melody is rooted in harmony. Many melodic phrases are triadic and make clear the harmonic progressions that must support them.
2) Rich palette of chords and progressions, incl. chromatic ones, diversifying style more than Lully's and achieving dramatic force through dissonances
- Handel spent 36 years composing and directing operas.
- Blended national styles. Ex; ALMIRA (1705), written for Hamburg when he was nineteen. Set arias in Italian and recite in German, so audience could follow the plot (local fashion).
- French influence: Overture and dance music
- Italian influence: arias and recits
- German influence: Counterpoint and orchestration (doubling vocal line with 1+ instruments)

- Influenced by Scarlatti's cantatas and operas --> how to write long-breathed, rhythmically varied melodies (Ex: AGRIPPINA 1709, Venice).
- RINALDO (1711) - first Italian opera composed for London. Made him famous in England.
- Wrote 4 more operas in 1710s, so his operas were staged every season.
- 1718-19 A bunch of rich guys and kind established an opera company to produce Italian operas "Royal Academy of Music" and Handel composed some of his best operas for this company: RADAMISTO (1720), OTTONE (1723), JULIUS CAESAR (1724), RODELINDA (1725), and ADMETO (1727).
- SUBJECTS: - usual ones of the time: Roman heroes, lots of intense dramatic situations or tales of magic and adventure around the Crusades.

- RECITS: Action developed through 2 types of recits:
1) Simple recite --> recitativo secco): accompanied only by b.c., set stretches of dialogue or monologue in as speech like fashion as possible (like Scarlatti)
2) Recitativo Accompagnato: used stirring orchestral outbursts to dramatize tense situations. These interjections reinforced rapid changes of emotion in dialogue, punctuated singers' phrases.
- ARIAS: solo da capo arias - represented a specific mood/ affection or sometimes 3 contrasting ones.
- Choruses - rare. Vocal ensembles larger than duets- rare.
- Instrumental Sinfonias - mark key moments in plot (battles, ceremonies, incantations. ballets.)
- Orchestra: fuller than Scarlatti operas, more winds like French operas. Orchestra divided like Italian concerto, with soloists accompanying the voice and full orchestra punctuates.
- Scenes: Interweaves récit, aria, arioso, orchestral passages - doesn't always separate them to create larger scenes and move the plot forward. Ex: JULIUS CAESAR.

Handel became impresario of the theater when the Royal Academy dissolved due to $. But they had a competing opera company, the Opera of the Nobility, but the two spent so much $, that they almost went bankrupt. Opera of the Nobility closed. Handel continued to write and produce operas until 1941, but not as successfully as before.

- 1930: Handel invented the english oratorio: an opera on a sacred subject, presented in concert, in a religious building, rather than on stage.
- EX: LA RESURREZIONE (The resurrection, 1708)
- Italian tradition: setting dialogue in recite and lyrical verses as arias.
- SIM TO ITALIAN OPERA: Resembled opera arias in form, style, techniques for expressing affections.
- DIFF FROM ITALIAN OPERA: elements from French classical drama, ancient Greek tragedy, German Passion, English masque and full anthem.
- CHORUS: *** most important innovation in oratorio- use of chorus. Italian oratorios had very few ensembles. English oratorio gave chorus way more prominence. Draws from the English and German lutheran tradition
----> Roles of chorus: participates in action, narrates story, comments on events like Greek chorus. Fits oratorio's emphasis on communal expression.
---> SPACE: Unlike oratorios in Italy, Handel's oratorios were performed in theaters (usually)
- WHY ORATORIO: To extend his earnings from opera, which could not be staged during Lent.
- When he didn't get enough subscriptions for opera, he decided to compose an oratorio (1739)
- Illustrates blending of genres:
--> Accompanied recit in martial style (Saul resolves to have David killed),
--> Simple récit: Dialogue b/n Sault and his son Jonathan
--> Chorus: reflects on morality of the situation. O fatal Consequence of Rage. 3 fugues, ending homorhythmically. With rhetorical figures (Handelian style)
EX: MESSIAH (1741)
- Libretto- unusual. Instead of telling story, it's a series of contemplations on redemption.
- Music typical of Handel: immediate appeal, mixture of traditions, from French overture to Italianate recitatives and da capo arias, Germanic choral figures and English choral anthem style.

At 20, Handel's opera Almira premiered in Hamburg, with great success.
- Went to Italy, where he composed 2 oratorios and operas Rodrigo (1707) and Agrippina (1709) for Venice.
- Worked at the court of Hanover, Germany

- London- served aristocratic patrons.
1730s: after 30 years of writing Italian operas for London theaters, Handel started writing oratorios in English mostly on sacred subjects.
J.S. BACH (1685-1750)
- 1703-1707: Church organist at ARNSTADT

- 1707-1708: Church organist at MÜHLHAUSEN
==> Wrote somecantatas here
- 1709-1714: Court organist at WEIMAR
--> Composed mostly for organ.
--> At Weimar, became fascinated by Vivaldi. Arranged his concertos for organ or harpsichord solo. His own style began to change: he learned to write concise themes, clarify harmonic scheme and develop subjects into grandly proportioned formal structures based on the ritornello idea.
===> Wrote some cantatas.
1) --> EX: Prelude and Fugue in A minor, BWV 543. Violinistic figuration like in concerto solos alternates with toccata sections. Contrasting textures, sequences, circle of fifths progressions, clear tonal structure, returns of opening material in new keys (like Vivaldi). Form resembles a concerto fast mvt (typical of Bach fugues.). Fugue subject functions like ritornello, returning in related keys and tonic. Between, episodes with solo character, marked by lighter texture, sequences or change of key.
2) --> EX: ORGELBÜCHLEIN (LITTLE ORGAN BOOK) - compiled at Weimar, with short chorale preludes. Served in church as intros before congregations sang the chorale. Also, pedagogical purpose.
3) ==> EX: "DURCH ADAMS FALL" (Through Adam's fall) BWV 637 - Some preludes symbolize visual images or ideas from choral text (like Schütz and Italian madrigalists). Jagged descending leaps in bass depict Adam's fall from grace, twisting chromatic line in alto = snake; downward=sliding tenor = pull of temptation and sorrow of sin.

1714-1717: Became choirmaster at WEIMAR --> wrote cantatas for church

1717-23: Court music director at CÖTHEN --> had no formal church music duties, so turned out mostly solo or ensemble music for domestic or court entertainment, with pedagogical works.
---> wrote some secular cantatas to celebrate birthdays of patrons or other festive events. Music reused for oother, church cantatas.
3) ==> BRANDENBURG CONCERTOS (dedicated in 1721, written earlier). All but the first, 3 mvt fast slow fast order of Italian concerto, triadic themes, driving rhythms, ritornello forms and style. Third and Sixth = orchestral concertos w/o featured soloists. Others- solo instruments in diff combos against strings with continuo. Expands on his model, with more ritornello material in episodes, dialogue b/n solo and orch in episodes, enlarging the form and with devices like long cadenza for harpsichord in the Fifth concerto.
==> Well-Tempered Clavier, book 1 (1722). Has 22 prelude and fugue pairs, in all keys. To demonstrate possibilities of playing in all keys on equal temperament instrument. Also pedagogical: function as etude- and teaching style.

1723-50: At Leipzig, in charge of music at four churches --> produced cantatas and other church music. 1729 - appointed director of the Leipzig collegium music, so he writes concertos and chamber works, organ pieces or harpsichord, and teaching pieces for private students.
==> At Leipzig, composed chamber music for solo instruments and harpsichord. Six each for violin and flute, 3 for viola da gamba. Most have 4 mvts slow fast slow fast, like sonata da chiesa. They're essentially trio sonatas.
==> CANTATA "Nun komm, der Heiden Heiland", BWV 62 (1724) - shows his procedures. Part of 2nd cycle for Leipzig, cantatas with words and music based on chorales. Opening chorus- based on chorale melody, ending = simple four-part harmonization of chorale for the closing stanza. Middle mvts- recite and arias in operatic style for soloists, no references to chorale melody. Opening chorus - mixture of genres: concerto and chorale. Orchestra begins with ritornello (like Vivaldi concerto) but features chorale as a cantus firmus in the bass. Ritornello recurs 3 times. But instead of episodes, there are 4 phrases of the chorale in chorus, set in cantus firmus style, with imitative counterpoint, while orchestra develops motives from ritornello.

==> PASSIONS: St. JOHN PASSION (1724) St. MATTHEW PASSION (1727) - both use recite, arias, ensembles, chorusses, chorales, orchestral accompaniment. Draws on elements from opera, cantata, oratorio - replaces older type composed by Schütz and others, which combined plainsong narration with polyphony. Here, tenor narrates biblical story in recite, soloists play parts of Jesus and other figures, and chorus sings the words of the disciples, crowd, and other groups. Other times, chorus comments on events, like Greek chorus. Recite, ariosos, and arias reflect on the story and relate meaning to the worshipers = similar purpose.

==> GOLDBERG VARIATIONS (1741) - raised genre of keyboard variations to new level of artfulness. All variations preserve bass and harmonic structure of the theme, a sarabande. Last variation is a "QUODLIBET" = combines 2 popular melodies about bass. Systematic approach.
===> BASS IN B MINOR (1747-9) - Bach's only complete setting of Catholic Mass Ordinary. Some of it written much earlier, (Kyrie and Gloria- 1733 given to elector of Saxony). Juxtaposed contrasting styles. Explores furthest potential of the Mass genre.
==> The Art of Fugue: demonstrates all types of fugal writing. Written in score, intended for keyboard performance. Has 18 canons and fugues in strictest style, all based on one subject or one of its transformations and arranged in order of increasing complexity. Last fugue, incomplete at Bach's death has the Bach motive.
St. Matthew Passion
St. John Passion
Mass in B Minor
200 church cantatas
30 secular cantatas
200 organ chorales
70 other works for organ.
Brandenburg Concertos
Well-tempered clavier
A Musical Offering
the Art of Fugue
many other keyboard, ensemble, orchestral and sacred compositions.
Went from concerto grosso (numerous solo instruments, with the ripieno) - concertato style of pinning different groups to each other (ex: Corelli, some vivaldi, but it's transition) --> to a solo concerto.

Transition from community to individualism. Concerto gross= soloists drawn form the group, not that big of a solo, while 19th century, it's centered around a soloist.
- Duble exposition derived from baroque style of having a ritornello? Double expositions then got removed cause solos became even more important.
- typical Vivaldi concerto - a typical baroque phrase has 3 sections: the headmotive, the fortspinnung (spinning out) and the cadence.

- EARLY 18TH CENTURY: concertos were in 3 mvt form w/ 2 fast around a slow.
- 1st mvt had a unique concerto form: elements of ritornello form of Baroque concertos, alternates orchestral ritornellos with soloist episodes, with contrasts of key and thematic material like in sonata form.
Ex: J.C. Bach Concerto for Harpsichord/ Piano and Strings in Eb Maj Op. 7, No. 5
- CADENZA: Common for Soloist to play cadenza, improv, before the final orchestral ritornello.

- Piano concertos, Flute concertos, horn concerto for a specific performer.
- Point of the concerto: big orchestra v. soloist or small group.
- They're more formally flexible. Cause of relationship b/n solo and Tutti - which adds a level of complexity.
- Combination of RITORNELLO FORM and parts of SONATA FORM (theme, transition, theme B, Cl)

EX: Jeunehomme (Young Man) - soloist for the Salzburg concerto. Her name was actually Victoria Jeramy.

EX: Concerto in E-Flat, K. 271.
- Late 17th century: composers created a new orchestral composition, called it "concerto," like the vocal concerto from before.
- So like vocal concerto, it united two contrasting forces, in an instrumental version of the concerto medium****
- Combined other traits: florid melody over firm bass, tonality, multiple mvts with contrasting tempos, modes, figuration.
- Concertos- closely related to sonatas and served same roles: public ceremonies, entertainments, private musical gatherings, and could substitute for elements of Mass.
1) ORCHESTRAL CONCERTO: work in several mvts, emphasized 1st vl and bass, diff from contrapuntal texture of sonata.
2) CONCERTO GROSSO: set a small ensemble (concertino), of solo instruments (usually 2 violins, accompanied by cello and continuo, like trio sonata, though other instruments could be added/ subbed) against a large ensemble (concerto grosso or RIPIENO)
3) SOLO CONCERTO: single instrument contrasted with a large ensemble (string orchestra.
-----> Both GROSSO and SOLO concerto, full orchestra = ripieno (full)

- Tomaso Albinoni introduced the schema of 3 mvt plan for concertos fast-slow-fast, which became the standard (1671-1750)

GERMANY: Lutheran SACRED CONCERTO. Originated with concerted vocal ensemble on biblical text, by Schütz, Schein, etc in early-mid 17th century.
- Sacred Concertos drew on these, plus CHORALE plus SOLO ARIA in Italian style, to create multi movement work. = SACRED CONCERTO.
- CONCERTATO CHORALE example: Wachet auf by Dieterich Buxtehude (1637-1707). Series of chorale variations.
TYPES: harpsichords, clavichords (until early 19th century), pianoforte (piano).
- 2 types:
1) grand piano: used in public performances and in aristocratic homes.
2) square pianos, shaped like clavichords= domestic instrument, called "fortepianos," to distinguish them from the larger, 19th century piano
- Keyboard music served a variety of roles
- to play alone and for ensemble music to perform as a social activity. Esp. among middle and upper classes, amateurs played for family and friends.
- Esp daughters were skilled performers at the keyboard, since they actually practiced

- Amateurs at home, upper and middle class, daughters. Played at home and at private gatherings
- ensemble music in diff combinations: 1+ melody instrument with keyboard. They functioned either as a b.c. = accompaniment OR sometimes it had a fully written out part = lead, accompanied by other parts.
- 18th century concert orchestras sometimes had a harpsichord. In the last quarter of the century, basso continuo was abandoned.


- While toccatas, preludes, fugues, chorale settings, and dance suites fell out of fashion, composers wrote variation sets, fantasias, and individual dances for the keyboard. Major genre: SONATA in 3-4 mvts of contrasting mood and tempo.
- Also sonatas for chamber ensembles- solo plus keyboard.
- DOMENICO SCARLATTI: wrote sonatas for harpsichord. collection called Essercizi. Binary form: 2 sections each repeated, first closes to V or III, second modulates, then returns to I.
- Typical Haydn symphony: 4 mvts
1) fast sonata-form mvt w/ slow intro
2) slow mvt
3) minuet and trio
4) fast finale in sonata or rondo form.

ex: Oxford symphony (No. 92 in G maj):
-contrast b/n stability and instability help follow the form. Themes: tonally stable, balanced phrases articulated by cadences. Transitions: unstable, full orchestra, loud dynamics, sequences, modulation, dramatic rushing figures, overlapping phrases, avoidance of cadences.

- Early Symphonies: 1757-67 for Count Morzin, scored for 2 oboes, 2 horns, and strings. Most in 3 mvts in fast-slo-fast (like earlier Italian and Austrian symphonies.)

-Esterházy symphonies - early years: bigger ensemble with flute, bassoon, other. Solo passages for each instrument to show skill.

- Symphonies of 1768-72: Longer, more rhythmically complex, more contrapuntal, challenging. Greater extremes in dynamics, sudden contrasts b/n loud and soft. Richer harmonic palette, modulations. More emotional, agitated character associated with STRUM UND DRANG (storm and stress)

- Symphonies of 1773-81. Haydn experiments in form and expression. Ex: Symphony No. 56 in C Maj - broad emotional range. Uses Sturm und Drang for surprise and contrast, tom make transition stand out.

- Symphonies for public concerts: Ex: Paris Symphonies. combination of popular and learner styles and deep expression.

- London Symphonies: after Salomon invited him to compose and conduct symphonies. Orchestra- expanded with trumpets, timpani, clarinets. Woodwinds and string bass get more independent. H.I. 104: imitation of bagpipe, suggestive of peasant dance.
- Allusions - Turkish band effect, trumpet fanfare, ticking accompaniment,
- French Overture
- Monothematicism
- Peasant Music - Drone, hurdy gurdies (in minuet, mvt. 3)
Wagner was a fan of "music of the future" = Hanslick, a music critic of the time, believed in absolute music, and criticized Wagner, loved Brahms, whereas Wagner believed music should be based on poetry- music of the future. He loved Brahms cause he kept his music more conventional, style of Beethoven, vs. Wagner, who loved Beethoven's 9th cause it added words to it, cause he felt that Beethoven felt that he had to add text to depict what music was actually supposed to be. So Wagner tried to depict text to music.
Ex: Tristan chord- used to depict a certain scene in Tristan Isolde- love-death music- image of them both being in love and fated to die. At the beginning of the overture. Like a german aug6 with suspensions that goes up.
Wagner= music of the future.
Brahms= absolute music. More formal instead of using poetry through music: he's all about using forms and messing and tinkering with forms, but not too much.
- Developing variations- take a melody and add to it. Ex: 2nd symphony, 2nd movement.
Leitmotive= depicting a certain character in different variations of music.
- Ring cycle: for opera.
- REPERTORY-wise: Brahms didn't write opera, but lieder, cantatas. Wagner- wrote operas.
Brahms contributed to chamber music, which Wagner didn't.
- Brahms symphonies, chamber music, Requiem, piano works
- Mendelssohn and Brahms both shared ideals of preserving music of the past: used prima pratica and fugues, vs. Wagner doing his own thing. Brahms also liked putting chorales into his symphonies and organ preludes.
1653-1713 Baroque composer - big in Italian chamber music of late 17th century.
- No vocal music left
- 3 main genres: trio sonata, solo violin sonata, and concerto grosso.
- Helped establish standards of form, style, and playing technique.
- In trio sonatas, he emphasized lyricism over virtuosity.
2 violins, treated exactly alike, cross, exchange music, interlock in suspensions.
1) walking bass under free imitation b/n violins
2) suspension chains in vas above a descending sequence in bass
3) dialogue b/n violins as they leapfrog over each other to progressively higher peaks.

- Sonatas have thematically independent movements, based on a single subject form the beginning of each movement. Then- variation, sequencing, modulations to nearby keys, "spinning out" of a single theme - a single idea generates flow of musical thoughts - characteristic of late Baroque from 1680s on.
- Music- fully tonal. With a sense of progression--> leads to a FUNCTIONAL HARMONY of today.

CHURCH SONATAS: typical FORM: 4 mvts, in 2 pairs, slow fast slow fast.
- Became standard for Corelli and later composers.
- 1) Slow mvt with contrapuntal texture, majestic, solemn character
2) Allegro with fugal imitation, bass line as a full participant. Elements of the canzona in its use of imitation, subject with a marked rhythmic character, of variation at later entrances of the subject.
3) Slow mvt, resembles a lyric, operatic duet in triple meter
4) Fast final with dancelike rhythms, often in binary form.

CHAMBER SONATAS: begin with prelude, then 2 or 3 dances, like French suite.
- First two mvts like church sonata - slow intro and fugal allegro. Some intros have dotted rhythms, like French overture. Dance mvts in binary form, each section repeated, first section closing on dominant or relative major and second returns to tonic.
- Bass line in chamber sonatas = accompaniment (unlike church sonatas, where it's equal role)

- divided b/n church and chamber sonatas.
- allow more virtuosity.
Allegro mvts: solo violin employs double and triple stops, fast runs, arpeggios, etc.
- Meant to be improvised upon.

IMPORTANCE: his sonatas = models for composers for the next half century. Motivic techniques, principles of tonal architecture are extended by Vivaldi, Bach, etc. Called 1st major composer whose reputation rests solely on instrumental music and first to create instrumental works that became classics.

CONCERTOS: (ex: Concerti grossi, Op. 6)
- They're essentially trio sonatas, divided b/n soli and tutti. Larger group echoes the smaller, fortifies cadential passages, punctuates structure through doublings.
- Imitated by later composers.
Grand opera. Meirbeer. depictions, but the scenery. Main difference b/n French and Italian opera is ballet. French opera and theater always had ballet with it.
Rossini- depending on which city he was in, he'd have different operas- like Othello, where he changed the ending to be happy.
- Webern- the Huntsman.
Italian opera of the 19th century began with Rossini and the conventions- rosin's codifications. Rest of the century is interpreting that form- introduction, cantabile, tempo di mezzo? and that evolved, until Verdi, which seems through composed, but there's an underlying structure.
- Italian opera existed by itself until 1860 it was Rossini, then Bellini in the Bel Canto period. Composers- all they did was write opera.
Late 19th century Italian opera begins to incorporate ideas from French opera- pacing slows down towards the end of the century. (vs. Verdi opera is ice pick drama, boom boom). Verismo opera- intense, dramatic Italian opera is all about plot, whereas the French is like lets do this chorus, let's dance, and we're sitting around.
Bellini is like Brahms in a way- he's looking back to older styles for opera, just with the pure voice, beautiful tone, and coloratura and ornamentation, rather than plot, where as Verdi is more about plot and drama.
- Rossini (1825ish)
- Bel Canto (Bellini and Donitzetti - 1840s)
- Verdi - carismos opera
- French grand opera (Carmen, for example) - looks to exotic sources in the last half of the 19th century
Italians steal from the French, and French keep looking elsewhere.
Then, the final wave is Puccini piggybacking off Verdi, picking up on traditions of France and Germany, dissolving forms, use a through-composed "mosaic" system, sim to leitmotif- established musical ideas that would creep up- used a recurring idea b/n a conversation.
Puccini continues exoticism with Turntoe and Madame Butterfly (about China and Japan- exoticism). French
After Wagner, in terms of german opera- Berg - brings together the Italian and German opera.
- Wagner plot- all mythical caracters.
German opera- based on having supernatural elements with humans in it too. Took place in Germanistic locations, with supernatural elements. Italian and Berg's 2 operas are about relationships gone wrong. Berg blends these traditions again.