The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
The activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.
Analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
The minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference. JND
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations.
The principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
The minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time
The focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus, as in the cocktail party effect.
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.