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Anatomy chapter 12 blood
Terms in this set (53)
transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
The percentage of red blood cells w/in a blood sample,
percentage of hematocrit
usu. about 45%.
what are red blood cells?
RBC's are biconcave disks, thin near the center. The cell membrane is also close to the hemoglobin. The mature cells do not have nuclei, allowing more space for hemoglobin. They can't synthesize proteins or divide b/c they lack nuclei
what does the shape of red blood cells do?
Its shape is helpful in transporting gases because it increases the surface area. .
how long do red blood cells live?
about 120 days.
The oxygen carrying protein in RBC's and contains iron.
When hemoglobin picks up oxygen, and is bright red.
When hemoglobin drops off the oxygen, and it's color becomes much darker.
A person deprived of oxygen for a long period of time results in hypoxia which can cause them to become cyanotic. The skin looks blue due to lack of oxygen ( high concentration of deoxyhemoglobin). Exposure to low temperatures can cause this due to constriction of superficial blood vessels
the name given to RBC formation, occurs in the yolk sac, liver, spleen, and then red bone marrow from birth on.
the hormone that controls the rate of RBC production. two organs release this hormone- Liver and kidneys. Using a negative feedback system.
two vitamins are important in RBC production?
B12 and folic acid. Iron is required for hemoglobin production.
Iron in the body
Iron is needed in only small quantities in the diet because the small intestine absorbs iron slowly from food. Most of the iron released from the decomposition of the hemoglobin from damaged RBC's is reused by the body.
life cycle of a RBC
1. Small intestine absorbs necessary nutrients.
2. Blood transports nutrients to red bone marrow.
3. RBC's are produced from stem cells.
4. Mature RBC's released into blood stream and live 120 days.
5. Macrophages destroy old/damaged RBC's in spleen/liver
6. Hemoglobin is released from these RBC's and broken down into heme and globin(protein).
7. Iron from the heme may go to the red bone marrow for reuse.
8. Or the iron is stored in the liver where it is decomposed into biliverdin and bilirubin which are excreted in the bile
To few RBC's or hemoglobin. The person affected may look pale and lack energy.
White blood cells
what do Leukocytes do?
function of WBC's is to destroy pathogenic microorganisms and parasites and remove worn out cells.
phagocytize small particles.(about ½ of WBC)
kills parasites, controls inflammation and allergic rxn's
release heparin(prevents intravascular blood clot formation) and histamines (increase blood flow to injured tissues).
phagocytize large particles
provides immunity (about 30% of WBC's)
why is white blood cell count important?
white blood cell count important b/c the # may change in response to abnormal conditions such as infection
excessive WBC count (above 10,000)indicating acute infection such as appendicitis
low WBC count(below 5000) which may accompany infections such as typhoid fever, flu, measles, mumps, chicken pox, AIDS, polio
Why is a differential white blood count (DIFF) important?
It lists the percentages of the different types of WBC's to help physicians distinguish b/t different types of diseases or infections.
how long do thrombocytes live?
They can live about 10 days
They arise from very large cells in the red bone marrow that fragment releasing small sections of cytoplasm into circulation. The large fragments shrink and become platelets as the move through the blood vessels in the lungs.
function of platelets
To help control blood loss from broken blood vessels.
A clear, straw-colored liquid that makes up about 55% of the blood volume. It is made of water, amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, hormones, electrolytes, wastes
function of plasma
To transport nutrients, gases, vitamins; help regulate fluid and electrolyte balance; maintain pH
The stoppage of bleeding
When the smooth muscle of a blood vessel contracts to lessen blood flow when there is a cut.
platelet plug formation
1. Break in vessel.
2. Blood escapes.
3. Platelets stick to each other, the end of the broken vessel, and to the exposed collagen.
4. "plug" of platelets is formed to control blood loss.
when the blood clots due to a broken blood vessel.
a blood clot that has formed abnormally in a blood vessel
when the clot dislodges and is carried off by the blood flow. It may then lodge itself again and block blood flow
The clumping of RBC's following a transfusion which leads to anxiety, difficulty breathing, flushing, headache, pain, and even death
molecules found on the surface of RBC's which stimulate antibody production before birth
amino acid chains produced by the immune system and destroy foreign particles.
What happens when agglutination occurs?
the antibody/antigen complex is too large to enter the body's cells, and phagocytes then engulf the clumped pathogen.
the four blood types
antigen A - (antibody) anti-B
antigen B - (antibody) anti-A
antigen A/B - (antibody) neither anti-A or anti-B
no antigens - (antibody) both anti-A and anti-B
what causes clumping?
An antibody of one type will react with an antigen of the same type and clump the RBC's.
what is the universal recipient?
AB. Because AB blood lock both anti-A and anti-B antibodies, and can usually receive a transfusion of any type blood.
what is the universal donor?
O. because O blood lacks antigens A and B and can therefore usually be transfused into a person of any type blood.
what causes positive and negative blood?
Blood that is Rh positive has antigen D. Rh negative has none. Rh antigen is an inherited trait and does not appear spontaneously as do A and B antigens.
what happens when a Rh negative person receives a transfusion of Rh+ blood?
If an Rh- person receives a transfusion of Rh+ blood, the Rh antigens stimulate antibody-producing cells to produce anti-Rh antibodies. Usually there is no serious effect. But if another transfusion is done later, the donated RBC's will usu. agglutinate.
What are Clotting factors?
biochemicals that either promote or inhibit coagulation. Usually anticoagulants prevail so that the blood doesn't clot, but when trauma occurs, coagulation takes place
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