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41 terms

Biology/ Chapter 22 Fungi

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Wheat Stem Rust
infection that begins with a spore lands on a wheat plant and fungal filaments invade the plant through it's stomata. --> led to Ug99
-single greatest threat to the world food supply @ this time
Fungi
eukaryotic heterotroph with cell walls of chitin; obtains nutrients by digesting them outside the body and absorbing them.
-are heterotrophs
-have walled cells and digest food outside of the body.
saprobe
organism that feeds on wastes and remains
mycelium
mass of threadlike filaments (hyphae) that make up the body of a multicelled fungus.
hypha
component of a gungal mycelium; a filament made up of cells arranged end to end.
dikaryotic
having two genetically distinct nuclei
fungal spore
a cell or cluster of cells, often with a thick wall that allows it to survive hasrsh conditions.
Three distinct groups of Fungi
1.Chytrids
2. Glomermycetes
3. zygote fungi
Chytrids
1. oldest fungal lineage
2. only living fungus that make flagellated spores
3. parasitizes amphibiens.
Zygote fungus
1. Fungus that forms a thickwalled zygospore during sexual reproduction.
Glomeromycetes
1. Fungus with haphae that grow inside the wall of a plant root cell.
2. Plant shares sugars with it's fungal roomate- which provides it with nutrients taken up from the soil.
Sac Fungi
1. Most diverse fungal group; sexual reproduction produces ascospores inside a saclike structure (an ascus).
Club Fungus
1. typically multi-celled
2. cross-walled alphae
3. sexual spores form inside club-shaped cells on a fruiting body, or basidiocarp, composed of interwoven dikaryotic hyphae.
4. only fungi capable of breaking down the lignin in wood.
lichen
a composite organism composed of a fungus and a single-celled photosynthetic partner.
2. Most often consists of sac fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae
mutualism
mutually beneficial relationship between two species
mycorrhiza
mutually beneficial relationship between a fungus and a plant root
ergotism
toxin, food poisoning
All fungi
are hetertrophs
Saprobic fungi obtrain nutrients from
nonliving organic matter
in _________, a hyphae has few or no cross-walls
zygomycyetes
The yeasts whose fermentation reactions produce carbon dioxide that makes bread rise are a type of...
sac fungus
In many _____, an extensive dikaryotic mycelium is the most consipirucuous phase of the life cycle.
Club Fungi
The mycelium of a multicelled fungus is a mesh of filaments, each called a...
hypha
A mushroom is
a reproductive structure that releases sexual spores
Spores released from a mushrooms gills are
haploid
____ are fungi that produce flagellated spores
Chytrids
Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria often interact with a fungus as a
lichen
_______ are mycorrhizal fungi with hyphae that grow into a root cell and branch inside it
Glomeromycetes
Histoplasmosis is an example of
mycosis
Chestnut Blight
1. Altered the species composition of eastern forests
2. was caused by an introduced fungal pathogen
3. was spread by wind-dispersed spores
Ergotism
produces halucinations and convultions
hypha-
filmaent of a mycelium
chitin-
component of fungal cell walls
chytrid-
produces flagellated spores
sac fungus
forms sexual spores in an ascus
club fungus
many form mushrooms
lichen
partnership between a fungus and one or more photoautotrophs
mycorrhiza
fungus-root partnership
haploid-
half of a chromosome pair (sperm and egg_)
diploid-
complete choromosome pair (all other cells in your body)
the majority of fungus is
haploid