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Wheat Stem Rust

infection that begins with a spore lands on a wheat plant and fungal filaments invade the plant through it's stomata. --> led to Ug99
-single greatest threat to the world food supply @ this time


eukaryotic heterotroph with cell walls of chitin; obtains nutrients by digesting them outside the body and absorbing them.
-are heterotrophs
-have walled cells and digest food outside of the body.


organism that feeds on wastes and remains


mass of threadlike filaments (hyphae) that make up the body of a multicelled fungus.


component of a gungal mycelium; a filament made up of cells arranged end to end.


having two genetically distinct nuclei

fungal spore

a cell or cluster of cells, often with a thick wall that allows it to survive hasrsh conditions.

Three distinct groups of Fungi

2. Glomermycetes
3. zygote fungi


1. oldest fungal lineage
2. only living fungus that make flagellated spores
3. parasitizes amphibiens.

Zygote fungus

1. Fungus that forms a thickwalled zygospore during sexual reproduction.


1. Fungus with haphae that grow inside the wall of a plant root cell.
2. Plant shares sugars with it's fungal roomate- which provides it with nutrients taken up from the soil.

Sac Fungi

1. Most diverse fungal group; sexual reproduction produces ascospores inside a saclike structure (an ascus).

Club Fungus

1. typically multi-celled
2. cross-walled alphae
3. sexual spores form inside club-shaped cells on a fruiting body, or basidiocarp, composed of interwoven dikaryotic hyphae.
4. only fungi capable of breaking down the lignin in wood.


a composite organism composed of a fungus and a single-celled photosynthetic partner.
2. Most often consists of sac fungus and cyanobacteria or green algae


mutually beneficial relationship between two species


mutually beneficial relationship between a fungus and a plant root


toxin, food poisoning

All fungi

are hetertrophs

Saprobic fungi obtrain nutrients from

nonliving organic matter

in _________, a hyphae has few or no cross-walls


The yeasts whose fermentation reactions produce carbon dioxide that makes bread rise are a type of...

sac fungus

In many _____, an extensive dikaryotic mycelium is the most consipirucuous phase of the life cycle.

Club Fungi

The mycelium of a multicelled fungus is a mesh of filaments, each called a...


A mushroom is

a reproductive structure that releases sexual spores

Spores released from a mushrooms gills are


____ are fungi that produce flagellated spores


Nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria often interact with a fungus as a


_______ are mycorrhizal fungi with hyphae that grow into a root cell and branch inside it


Histoplasmosis is an example of


Chestnut Blight

1. Altered the species composition of eastern forests
2. was caused by an introduced fungal pathogen
3. was spread by wind-dispersed spores


produces halucinations and convultions


filmaent of a mycelium


component of fungal cell walls


produces flagellated spores

sac fungus

forms sexual spores in an ascus

club fungus

many form mushrooms


partnership between a fungus and one or more photoautotrophs


fungus-root partnership


half of a chromosome pair (sperm and egg_)


complete choromosome pair (all other cells in your body)

the majority of fungus is


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