Sociology: Chapter 9: Global inequality:

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Terms in this set (...)

globalization:
-the increased economic, political, and social interconnectedness of the world;
-has produced opportunities for unthinkable wealth but also widespread poverty and suffering;
global inequality:
-systematic difference in wealth and power between countries;
-these differences exists along side differences within countries;
-even the wealthiest countries have growing numbers of poor people, while less wealthy nations are producing many of the world's superrich;
-sociology's challenge is not merely to identify such differences but to explain why they occur-and how they might be overcome;
per-person gross national income (GNI):
-is a measure of a country's yearly output of goods and services per person;
high income country:
-those that industrialized first;
-have 15.5 percent of the world's population;
-command 75.8 percent of the world's annual output of wealth;
-although the high income countries have a large number of poor, they offer decent housing, adequate food, drinkable water, and other comforts-a standard of living unimaginable by the majority of the world's people;
middle income country:
-primarily found around east and southeast asia and oil rich countries of the middle east and north Africa, mexico, central America, cuba and other Caribbean counties and south America; and once communistic countries of Russia;
-the countries of the former Russia where highly industrialized, although their living standards have eroded as a result of the collapse of communism and moving to capitalistic society;
-46.7 percent of the world's population;
-only 20.8 percent of the wealth produced;
low income countries:
-much of eastern, western, and sub-Saharan Africa, Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, an a few other east Asian countries, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan; eastern and central European countries like Ukraine, Georgia, Haiti and Nicaragua;
-mostly agricultural economies and are just beginning to industrialize;
-36.36 percent of world's population;
-only produce 3.33 percent of world's yearly output of wealth;
-increasing partly as a result of higher fertility, for large family provide additional farm labor or otherwise contribute to family incomes;
-in fact, the populations of low income countries grew 2.6 times as fast as those of high-income countries;
-people struggle with poverty, malnutrition; and starvation;
-most people live in rural areas;
-but many move into urban slums;
health of low income people:
-generally suffer from inadequate health facilities, and the few hospitals or clinics seldom serve the poorest people;
-lack proper sanitation, drink polluted water, risk contracting infectious disease;
-more likely to suffer malnutrition, starvation an famine;
-growing evidence that the high rates of HIV/AIDS infection in many African countries reflect the weakened health of impoverished people;
infant mortality:
-likely to die in infancy and less likely to live to old age;
-infants are 13 times more likely to die at birth-and if surviving birth-are likely to live twenty years fewer;
-children often die of illness that are readily treated in wealthier countries, such as measles and diarrhea;
-in some parts of the world, such as sub-Saharan Africa, a child is more likely t0 die before the age of five than to enter secondary school;
some improvements on infant mortality:
-since early 1980s some improvements have occurred;
-in most of the middle-income countries and in some of the low income countries infant mortality has been cut in half, and average life expectancy has increased by ten years or more because of wider availability of modern medical technology, improved sanitation, and rising income;
definition of hunger:
-a diet of 1,800 calories or less;
-an amount of insufficient to provide adults with the nutrients required for active, healthy lives;
why hunger happens today:
-result of a combination of natural and social forces;
-droughts alone affect an estimated 100 million people;
-the combination of drought and internal warfare has wrecked food production;
-the role of conflict in increasing hunger is increasing;
-the AIDS epidemic has also contributed to food shortages and hunger because it kills many working adults;
reason why education is important:
-1. it contributes to economic growth because people with advanced schooling provide the skilled workforce necessary for high wage industries;
2. educations offers the only hope for escaping the cycle of harsh working conditions and poverty, because poorly educated people are condemned to low-wage unskilled jobs;
3. educated people have fewer children; slowing global population explosion that contributes to global poverty;
newly industrializing economies (NIEs):
-developing countries that over the past two or three decades have begun to develop a strong industrial base, such as Singapore and Hong Kong;
price of economic growth in east Asia:
-violent repression of labor and civil rights;
-terrible factory conditions;
-the exploitation of an increasingly female workforce;
-the exploitation of immigrant workers;
-environmental degradation;
reasons for success of economic growth in east Asia:
-historical-stemming from world political and economic shifts;
-cultural;
-ways these countries pursued economic growth;
reasons why east asia economy was so successful:
-part of colonial situations that, while imposing hardships, also paved the way for economic growth;
-benefited from a long period of economic growth;
-took off at the high point of the cold war;
-part to their cultural traditions, especially their shared Confucian philosophy;
-governments followed strong policies that favored economic growth;
theories that explain global inequalities:
-market-oriented;
-dependency,
-world-systems;
-state-centered;
shortcomings of all four theories that try to explain global inequalities:
-the role of women in the economic development;
market oriented theories:
-best economic consequences will result if individuals are free from governmental constrains to make their own economic decisions;
-unrestricted capitalism is seen as the avenue to economic growth;
-government bureaucracy should not dictate which goods to produce, what prices to charge, or how much to pay workers;
-government direction of low -income countries blocks economic development;
-any country can make it if they do it our way-like the USA and other high-income countries;
-has inspired the USA to provide money, expert advisers, and technology to low-income countries paving the way for US corporations to make investments there;
-modernization theory
modernization theory:
-low-income societies can develop economically onlyif they adopt modern economic institutions, technologies, and cultural values that emphasize savings and productive investment;
-the traditional cultural values and social institutions of low-income countries impede their economic effectiveness;
but to modernization theorists the problem runs deeper:
-they think the problems in low income countries run even deeper be cause their cultures support a value system that views hardship and suffering as unavoidable;
-acceptance of one's lot in life discourages people from being thrifty and working hard to overcome their fate;
-in this views, a countries poverty is due largely to the cultural failings of the people themselves, which are reinforced by government policies that set wages and control prices and generally interfere in the operation of the economy;
economic growth is going through several stages, which the likened to the journey of an airplane:
1. traditional stage;
2. takeoff of economic growth;
3. drive to technological maturity;
4. high mass consumption;
economic growth is going through several stages, which the likened to the journey of an airplane: traditional stage:
-low rates of savings, the supposed lack of a work ethic;
-fatalistic value system;
-the airplane is not yet off the ground;
economic growth is going through several stages, which the likened to the journey of an airplane: take off of economic growth:
-when poor countries begin to jettison their traditional values and institutions and start to save and invest money for the future;
-wealthy countries, such as the united states, can facilitate this growth by financing birth control programs or providing low cost loans fro electrification, roads and airport construction, and new industries;
economic growth is going through several stages, which the likened to the journey of an airplane: drive to technological maturity:
-the airplane of economic growth would taxi down the runway, pick up speed, and become airborne;
-the country would then approach technological maturity and climb to cruising altitude, improving its technology, reinvesting its recently acquired wealth in new industries, and adopting the institutions and values of the high income countries;
economic growth is going through several stages, which the likened to the journey of an airplane: high mass consumption:
-now people can enjoy the fruits of their labor by achieving a high standard of living;
-the airplane (country) cruises on automatic pilot, having entered the ranks of high-income countries;
dependency theories:
-built on Karl Marx, who argued that world capitalism would create a class of countries manipulated by more powerful countries;
-the poverty o low income countries stems form their exploitation by wealthy countries and the multinational corporations based in those wealthy countries;
-in their view, global capitalism has locked their countries into a downward spiral of exploitation and poverty;
colonialism: back in time:
-powerful nations colonized other countries to procure raw materials (such as petroleum, copper and iron) for their factories and to control markets for the manufactured products;
-although colonialism typically involved European countries establishing colonies in north and south America, Africa and Asia some Asian countries had colonies as well;
modern colonialism:
-transnational corporations continued to reap enormous profits form their branches in low income countries;
-according to dependency theory, these global companies, often with the support of the powerful banks and governments of rich countries, established factories in poor countries, using cheap labor and raw materials to maximize production costs without governmental interfered;
dependent development:
-the theory that poor countries can still develop economically, but only in ways shaped by their reliance on the wealthier countries;
world-system theory:
-argues that the world capitalist economic system of countries engaging in diplomatic and economic relations with one another must be understood as a single unit;
-this approach is identified with the work of Immanuel Wallerstein and his colleagues;
-showed that capitalism has functioned as a global economic system ever singe the extension of markets and trade in Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries;
the world system comprises four overlapping elements:
-world market for goods and labor;
-the division of the population into different economic classes, particularly capitalists and workers;
-international system of formal and informal political relations among the most powerful countries, whose competition helps shape the world economy;
-the division of the world into there unequal economic zones, with the wealthier zones exploiting the poorer ones;
core countries:
-according to world-systems theory, the most advance3d industrial countries, which take the lion's share of profits in the world economic system;
periphery:
-countries that have a marginal role in the world economy and are thus dependent on the core producing societies for their trading relationships;
semiperiphery:
-countries that supply sources of labor and raw materials to the core industrial countries and the world economy but are not themselves fully industrialized societies;
global commodity chains:
-worldwide networks of labor and production process yielding a finished product;