Anatomy and Physiology Test 2 Reproductive System

reproductive system
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Terms in this set (48)
prophase 1chromosomes shorten and thicken; nuclear envelope/nuclei disappear; mitotic spindle appears; homologous chromosomes form tetrads and crossing over occurs between maternal and paternal chromosomes; crossing over results in genetic variations among gametesmetaphase 1homologous chromosome pairs line up along metaphase plateanaphase 1homologous pairs separate; one member of each pair moves to opposite pole; cleavage furrow starts to formtelophase 1 and cytokeneiscleavage furrow is complete; two daughter cells containing half the chromosome number of parent cell (23 duplicated chromosomes) resulttestesprimary male sex organ which produce sperm and male sex hormones; ovoid shaped; located in the scrotum; divided into lobules which contain one to four seminiferous tubules, spermatogenic cells, and interstitial cellsseminiferous tubuleslocated on the outer surface of the testes; site of sperm cell creationspermatogenesissite of sperm cell creationinterstitial cellslie between seminiferous tubules; secrete male sex hormones; Cells of Leydigepididymisseminiferous tubules unite to form the epididymis which is located on the outer surface of the testes; stores sperm cells; continues to form the vas deferensvas deferensmuscular tube passes upward from the testesseminal vesiclessac-like structure attached to vas deferens; secretes an alkaline fluid (7.5 pH) rich in fructose for sperm energypHa measure of acidity or alkalinityprostate glandsurround urethra below the bladder; secretes a milky fluid which enhances sperm motilitybulbourethral glandstwo small exocrine glands beneath the prostate; secretes lubricant for penissemenfluid expelled externally from the urethra during ejaculation; slightly alkaline mixture of sperm from the testes, alkaline fluids from the prostate, fructose from seminal vesicles, and lubricant from bulbourethral glandsscrotumpouch of skin and subcutaneous tissue that encloses the testespenismale excitatory organ; specialized to become erect for insertion into vagina during sexual intercourse; cylindrical body composed of three columns of erectile tissue; completely surrounds urethraovariesprimary female sex organs which produce ova (eggs) and female sex hormones; solid ovoid structures that are located (one on each side) on the posterior wall of the pelvic cavitymedulla and cortexparts of the ovariesmedullaconnective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and nervescortexovarian follicles covered by germinal epitheliumoogenesismaturation of an oocyte (23 chromosomes); females are born with all their ova as primary oocytes; at puberty, and once each month, follicle-stimulating hormones (FSH) stimulates one primary oocyte to undergo meiosis 1uterine tubesaka fallopian tubes; tubes that extend medially from the ovaries to the uterus; distal ends of the uterine tubes extend over the ovaries; extensions called fimbriae; inner lining of tubes covered with hair-like projections called cilia; cilia assists in oocyte movement; fertilization usually occurs in uterine tubeuterusa muscular organ that receives embryo and sustains its life during development; located within the female pelvisendometriuminner lining of uterine wallmyometriumbundles of smooth muscle; largest part of the uterus; located in the uterine wallperimetriumvisceral (outer) covering of uterine wallcervixlower 1/3 of the uterus narrows to form the cervixPapanicolaou (Pap) testtakes tissue samples from cervix; test for changes in cervical tissue that may indicated precancerous conditionvaginapassageway from cervix to the ouside; serves to receive erect penis; pass uterine secretions; transport offspring during childbirthhymenmembrane which partially closes the vaginal orifice (opening)labia majoraexternal rounded folds of adipose tissue and skin; encloses and protects underlying organs and tissueslabia minoraflattened, longitudinal fold between labia majora; well supplied with blood vesselsclitorisfemale excitatory organ; small projection at the anterior end of the labia, which corresponds to the male penis; composed of two columns of erectile tissuevestibulespace between labia minora that encloses vaginal and urethral openings; vestibular glands secrete mucus into the vestibule during sexual stimulationpregnancythe presence of a developing offspring in the uterus; usually 38 weeks from the date of fertilization; consists of three trimesters that include the time from fertilization until birth; it can be divided into an embryonic stage and fetal stageembryonic developmentconsidered from the time of fertilization to the eighth week of development; rudimentary form of all principle organs are present; placenta forms; external body structures appearfetal periodfrom the eighth week of development until birth