Chapter 25: The Sixties
Terms in this set (145)
What did greensboro sit-ins launch in 1960?
political activism and social change
How sit-ins were taken part in end of 1960?
70,000 and protesters didn't strike back
What did the New Left and 2nd Wave expose?
limitations of traditional new deal liberalism and forced reconsideration of nations foreign policy
Student nonviolent coordinating Committee (SNCC)
dedicated to replacing the culture of segregation with a "beloved community" of racial justice and empowering ordinary blacks to take control of the decisions that affected their lives
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
• launchd freedom rides
• integrated groups traveled by bus into the deep south to test compliance with court orders banning segregation on interstate buses, trains, and terminal facilities
What did Freedom Riders actions lead to?
led to Interstate Commerce Commission to order buses and terminals desegregated
The 'Citadel of Segregation'. Children sent into streets by MLK. Met with violence. HIGH POINT OF PROTEST. TV coverage-wave of revulsion worldwide. Kennedy HAD to support cause. Rhetoric freedom v. Reality racism. People began picking sides on issue.
• in one week more than 15,000 arrests in 186 cities
Letter to Birmingham
• related the abuses faced by black southerners from police brutality to humiliation
• Martin Luther
Both criticized the church for using their authority against the essential meaning of the church; using church authority to bring people down
What did the events in Birmingham lead to?
it led to buisinessmen to desegregate downtown stores and restaurants and promises sales people would be hired
High Point of Civil Rights Movement
2 weeks before theBirmingham church bombing (August 28, 1963) 250,00 blacks and whites converge on the nations capital for the March on Washington
"I have a dream" speech and demanded "Jobs and Freedom"
1. A. Philip randolph
led coalition of civil rights, labors, and church organization
What were A. Philip Randolph goals?
to reduce unemployment, increase minimum wages, and law barring discrimination in employment
youthful glamour, soaring hopes, and dynamic leadership at home and abroad
JFK Speech at Waterched
said nothing about segregation or race
established by Kennedy and his first act during his administration which sent young Americans abroad to aid in the economics and educational progress of developing countries
• 15,000 women and men volunteered in peace corps
Marshall for Western Hemisphere
• smaller sums of money
• failed in 1961
took power of cuba (cuba economic dependency of U.S.)
What did Fidel Castro's gov't nationalize?
started nationalizing American landholdings, other investments, and sold sugars to soviets
How did Eisenhower react to Fidel Castro's actions?
• he suspended the sugar trade to soviets
• CIA trained Anti-castro exiles to invade Cuba
Bay of Pigs
Kennedy allowed the CIA to launch the invasion at Cuba
• Invasion failed in toppling Castro's gov't
• 14,000 invaders, more than 100 were killed, and 1,100 captured
What happened on October 1962?
Soviet Union installed Cuban Missile near U.S.
How did Kennedy react to the Cuban Missile Crisis?
• he imposed blockade and missiles removal and Nikita Khrushchev agreed
• Kennedy agreed U.S. wouldn't invade Cuba and secretly agree to remove American jupiter missiles from Turkey
• 13 days
What did Kennedy announce on live television?
to ban discrimination in all public areas
What did Lyndon B. Johnson secure?
secured the civil rights bill and domestic liberalism
Who assassinated JFK?
Lee Harvey Oswald
This group was known for it's sit-ins (i.e.: Woolworth's) and was THE LEADING FORCE FOR SOCIAL CHANGE. Importance-how many joined nonviolent movement.
Civil rights activists had more hope for justice from this group than from local governments or civic institutions.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act prohibited racial discrim. in jobs, hospitals, schools, rest., hotels, & theaters. Prohibited discrim. based on sex but did NOT address vote in South. "Delivered South to the Republican Party"-LBJ
Lyndon B. Johnson
The most passionate president with regard to the Civil Rights Movement was ______
In his inaugural address of '61, Kennedy urged Americans to move beyond self centered ______________
The Cold War
One of the central problems with Pres. Kennedy was that he viewed the Vietnam war through the lense of ____ ____
Relations with this country was a perfect example of how little the two superpowers cared about people in between them. Show why others didn't want to align with either.
The Great Society
LBJs proposal for govt action to promote general welfare. Expanded powers of federal govt. RESPONSE TO PROSPERITY NOT DEPRESSION. Address voting rights, POVERTY, disease, education, immigration & environment. Viet.War killed programs/his presidency.
• White college students, children of affluence, redefining freedom. Spoke of loneliness, isolation, alienation, & powerlessness. Wanted authenticity (cannot buy). INSPIRED BY BLACK FREEDOM MOVEMENT.
• expanded to Cultural Freedom
Upheaval of the Sixties
This was a combination of the most excluded members of society and the children of the middle class.
Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
• This group was a student activist movement in the United States that was one of the main representations of the New Left.
• Socialist league for industrial democracy
Port Huron Statement
• "We seek the establishment of a democracy of individual participation (in which) the individual shares in those social decisions determining the quality & direction of his life."
• For SDS-Freedom mean participatory democracy.
• 4/5 criticism of political corporations, unions, and military-industrial-complex
• manifesto of the SDS, which criticized the federal government for racial inequality, poverty, and also the Cold War and international peace
What does Kennedy mainly focus during his administration?
• Focuses on fighting the cold war
• helped little domestically
• peace corps
• space program
• Alliance program for Latin America which fails
• remembered for "hope"
USSR builds Berlin Wall during Kennedy's administration
Modern Conservative Movement
reaction against the growing welfare and increasing taxation
What brought attention to inequalities in jobs, education, and housing?
violent outbreaks in black ghettos outside the south drew attention to the national scope
A scene of violence against non-violent demonstrators on television. LBJ asked Congress to enact what became Voting Rights Act of 1965. Most powerful federal endorsement of movement. "We Shall Overcome."
What are the Miranda Rights?
The rights an accused has during interrogation.
Who is Thurgood Marshall?
The first African American Supreme Court justice in 1967
Who is Bull Connor?
Birmingham's police chief, unleashed police dogs on the children and sprayed them with fire hoses with 700 pounds of pressure.
Who is Medgar Evers?
Civil Rights activist; killed outside his home in Jackson, Mississippi
Who is Malcom X?
symbol of black power movement, he joined islam and then talked about it and was shot and killed
What is the Voting Rights Act?
The National Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed discriminatory voting practices that had been responsible for the widespread disenfranchisement of African Americans in the United States
What is the 24th Amendment?
no poll taxes allowed
What is Gulf of Tonkin resolution
Spurred the US to join the war because the US destroyer Maddox was attacked by North Vietnam forces and led to the US escalation of US military involvement.
• Responding to the shooting at US ships and congress authorizes for troops and unlimited money to support peace in southeast asia(#of troops and $)
• Johnsons sends millions of troops passed by the House of Representatives 416-0 and passed in the senate 88-2
• authorized the president to take all necessary measures to repel armed attack
What is Operation Rolling Thunder
The bombing campaign USA did in North Vietnam
What is the Tet offensive?
north vietnam attacked virtually all south vietnamese cities and American air bases 45,000 north vietnamese died, 2,300 south vietnamese, and 1,100 U.S.
The 1965 Watts uprising
• 35 dead
• 900 injured
• $30 million in property damage
Why did some people fear that a racial civil war could happen?
summer of 1967, violence had become so widespread
•This stated that even though blacks had rights, the country was still unequal, because it was a white society. It tried to persuade legislation to recreate better homes, jobs, and job training.
•violence that arose caused urban rioting, leading johnson appoint otto kerner to study the causes of the violence and riots. It blamed the violence on segregation and poverty and offered indictment of white racism.
"Make Freedom Real"
With black unemployment twice that of whites and average black family income little more than half the white norm, the movement looked for ways to "make freedom real" for black Americans.
Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged
MLK calls for this bill in order to mobilize the nation's resources to abolish economic deprivation and against poverty
proposed by A. Philip Randolph which spent $100 billion over ten years on federal programs of job creation and urban redevelopment
Chicago Freedom Movement
launched by Kind to end discrimination by employers and unions, equal access to mortgages, the integration of public housing, and construction of low income
What were Martin Luther King's tactics?
• mass arrests
Causes of U.S. involvement in Vietnam war
• north Vietnamese vessels encountered an American ship on a spy mission and north Vietnamese patrol boats fired on American vessel
•Ignorance of Vietnam
• Anti Communism crusade
• attacks on U.S. base
• Kennedy's assassination
• "Loss of China"
• Committing to help French
• Test of counterinsurgency
• Dinh Diem didn't listen to U.S., corrupt, and side with him because of anti communism
• Diem's death
• Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Effects of Vietnam on U.S. (public)
American citizens lose faith in government and the limits of American power becomes evident
The war at home
• social unrest, there was a counter culture movement
• age gap, young people hippies and old people conservatives
• "Living Room War"
• War at home
• A divided nation, there was a new left movement which was very liberal and made up of the youth, hawks were those that supported war and doves supported peace, Vietnam War caused more student protests than any other war before
• Power to the people movements
Effects of Vietnam on U.S. (troops)
post traumatic stress syndrome, veterans were unable to acclimate to civilian life
• In war, troops struggled with drug addiction which was cheap in Vietnam
• Were not welcomed home like the wwII victorious soldiers were
• Some troops near agent orange contracted cancer
Economic Implications vietnam on US
IMPLICATIONS OF VIETNAM WAR ON U.S.
• Loss of manpower engaged in the fighting, killed, and wounded to American Economy
• Growth of the American Military Complex and the corresponding growth in military related jobs
• Deficit spending by the U.S. gov't leading to increasing the size of the national debt
• The loss of billions of U.S. dollars that could have been put to use on U.S. domestic issues (education, infrastructure, etc...)
• Devaluation of the U.S. dollar because of the need caused for war materials not in enough abundance in the U.S
Why did the United States get involved in the war in Vietnam?
At first, after the Geneva Accords split Vietnam in two (South and North Vietnam), a group called the Vietcong began a war against the governing authority in South Vietnam.
• During this time, the US was sending supplies and a small amount of troops to South Vietnam to help shape the new democratic country.
•When North Vietnamese (communist) patrol boats attacked American destroyers, this led to all out war with North Vietnam.
• The US also got involved to stop communism from spreading from North to South Vietnam.
What did Malcolm X insist?
he insisted that blacks must control the political and economic resources of their communities and rely on their own efforts rather than working with whites
more black freedom, officials, equality, etc. and the slogan that came to national attention when the SNCC used it
Black Panther Party
group of people who advocated armed self-defense in response to police brutality
What declined in the 1960's?
How many attended to college in 1968?
7 million people
New Left Inspiration Black Freedom Movement
evils to be corrected were deeply embedded in social institutions and direct confrontation persuade Americans to change
"The Fire Next Time"
by James Walden exposed angry voice to black revolution
• by Rachel Carson's exposed the environmental costs of economic growth, specifically the truth about DDT
• effects of insecticide widely used by homeowners, gypsy moths, and other insects, DDT killed birds/animals/ and caused sickness among humans
"The Other America"
by Michael Harrington revealed persistence of poverty amid plenty
"The Death and Life of Great American Cities"
by Jane Jacobs criticized urban renewal, removal of poor from city centers, and destruction of neighborhoods to build highways
intervention to counter internal uprisings in non communist countries
What did national security council recommend after Johnson's reelection?
for U.S. to begin air strikes against North Vietnamese
T OR F : King was against the war
Why did men burn their draft or flee to Canada in 1967?
because they didn't want to fight in war
T OR F : 200,000 anti war protesters marched to Pentagon across Potomac River
F, only 100,000
• a generational rebellion in which young people openly rejected the values and behavior of their elders
• colorful clothing, rock music, images of sexual freedom, black revoluntisits
• free individual
Youth Of International Party ( "YIPPIES")
introduced humor and theatricality as protist
(ex. Berkeley) an immense, impersonal institution where enrollments in many classes approached 1000
Free Speech Movement
movement led by Berkley college students who were fighting the restriction of free speech
free speech activist in Berkeley and other places during 1960's; raised awareness for free speech (simply the right to protest simply everything in society)
SDS leader who openly challenged the foundations of Cold War thinking
man who defined freedom as a rejection of all authority
harvard scientist turned prophet of mind-expansion; inventor of LSD
a psychedelic drug that embodied the freedom to expand your own consciousness
a music festival in upstate NY that brought together hundreds of thousands of young people in 1969 to celebrate their alternative lifestyle and independence from adult authority
"The Feminine Mystique"
• by Betty Friednan who challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of suburban housewifery and helped launched 2nd wave of Feminism
• consumer culture and the discontents of the middle class, as well as pay discrimination against females and racism in the workplace
"a comfortable concentration camp"
Equal Pay Act (1963)
barring sex discrimination among holders of same jobs
National Organization of Women (NOW)
• organization that demanded equal opportunity in jobs/education/political participation and attacked the "false image of women" spread by the mass media
• Frednan president
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
a major force in breaking down barriers to female employers
the process of achieving greater awareness, as of one's own needs or of a political or social issue
Womens Liberation Movement
introduced "sexism", "sexual politics", and "the personal is political"
Sisterhood is Powerful
a collection of essays, manifestos, personal accounts about a big array of issues from violence against women to inequalities in the law, churches, workplaces, family life
leader in the LGBT rights movements; helped found several gay rights organizations, including the Mattachine Society in 1951
first gay rights organization
The Greenwich Village Bar Incident
• homosexuals fought back police which changed history
• men and women came out the close saying that they have rights, powers, and identity
Chicano farm workers found a powerful advocate and disciple of MLK who led a series of nonviolent protests to pressure growers to agree to labor contracts with the UFW
United Farm Workers (UFW)
mass movement for civil rights as a campaign for economic betterment and labor union that helps workers get unemployment insurance
an exaggerated sense of manliness, including the right to dominate women
system that sought to dismantle the reservation system and integrate Indians into the American mainstream
American Indian Movement
• group that staged protests demanding greater tribal self-government and the restoration of economic resources guaranteed in treaties
• created the term Red Power
• preserved forests and its membership tripled
• alerted the dangers of water contamination, air pollution
• most states banned DDT
the equation of progress with endless increases in consumption and the faith that science, technology, economic growth would advance social welfare
Indians of all Nations
group of indians that occupied Alcatraz island and claimed that it had been illegally seized from its original inhabitants
April, 22, 1970) a day of rallies, concerts, etc. about the Earth
"Unsafe at Any Speed"
Ralph Nader that exposed how auto manufacturers produced highly dangerous vehicles
What did Richard Nixon help pass to protect the environment?
• Clean Air
• Clean Water Act
•Endangered Species Act
new consumer protection laws and regulation
(June 17, 1957) court moved to rein in the anticommunist crusade
NAACP vs. Alabama
court case in which the court strikes down southern laws that sought to destroy civil rights organizations by forcing them to make public their membership list
New York Times vs. Sullivan
court case in which the court overturns a libel judgement by an Alabama jury against the nation's leading newspaper for carrying an ad critical of how local officials treated civil rights
Loving vs. Virginia
court case in which the court declares laws unconstitutional that prohibited interracial marriage
Jones vs. Alfred H. Mayer Co.
court case in which the court forbade discrimination in the rental of sale of housing
Miranda vs. Arizona
court case in which the court ruled that an individual must be informed of the right to remain silent and to confer with a lawyer before answering questions and must be told that any statements might be used in court; caused the Miranda Warnings
Baker vs. Carr
court case in which the court established the principle the districts electing members of state legislature must be equal in population
Grinswald vs. Connecticut
court case in which the court overturned a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives
the Constitution never uses the word _____________
Roe vs. Wade
Roe vs. Wade court case in which the court created a constitutional right to terminate pregnancy
Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops launched well-organized uprisings in cities throughout south Vietnam
Poor People's March
march hoping to bring thousands of demonstrators to Washington DC to demand increased anti-poverty efforts
What programs did Johnson's War on Poverty include?
VISTA, a domestic Peace Corps, the Office of Economic Opportunities, Head Start, and food stamps
Open Housing Act
act that prohibited discrimination in the sale/rental of homes and apartments, but had weak enforcement
Robert F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy JFK's brother who was assassinated while seeking the democratic nomination as an opponent of the war
the democratic nominee for the presidency in the election of 1968
the ordinary Americans who believed that change had gone too far
The Warren Court
new rights in response to the rapidly changing contours of American society
Voter registration drive launched in Mississippi. Northern white students joined. Violent! Led to MFDP taking seats at Democratic National Convention.
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Went to all white Democratic National Convention to take seats.
Segregation & Poverty
Violence in Ghettos and urban uprisings of mid 60's attributed to _______ & ________. Blamed on white racism. No clear proposals for change by LBJ admin.
Two Phases of Civil Rights Movement
1) Clear objectives-Far reaching accomplishments
2) Political fragmentation-No clear objectives / few victories
International Black Movement
This movement was akin to decolonization, non-align, 3rd World movements.
California Real Estate Association sponsored an initiative to counteract the effects of the Act. Proposition 14 was declared unconstitutional by the California Supreme Court in 1966. The decision of the California Supreme Court was affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967 in Reitman v. Mulkey.
Watts Riots of 1965
A large-scale riot which lasted 6 days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. 34 people had been killed, 1,032 injured, and 3,438 arrested. The riot is viewed by some as a reaction to the record of police brutality by the LAPD (when officer pulled over a drunk driver) and other racial injustices suffered by black Americans in Los Angeles, including job and housing discrimination.
Developed by the "Young Americans for Freedom"; which wanted to limit the power of the federal government who they believed threatened true freedom and liberty.
Hart-Celler Act (1965)
abandoned national origins quota system; created "illegal aliens" status for Mexicans
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and elderly
a domestic version of the Peace Corps for inner cities
the number of U.S. troops in Vietnam
increased to half a million
What was the goal of the march on washington?
to get the support to pass kennedy's civil rights act
The Alliance for Progress
was President Kennedy's Marshall Plan for Latin America