Technological Utopianism
Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 22
Terms in this set (22)
Today, the work and drudgery has been taken out of food. Food is not messy; it is packaged and clean. We work hard to disappear food and take out the foodiness of it. We are deliberate about our distance from food's origins - the number of farmers has drastically decreased. We are industrial eaters: we can't know or imagine the connections betweem eating and the land.
Negotiation of Identity, Convenience, and Responsibility. Identity encapsulated cultural identity, personal tastes, memory, rituals/holidays. Convenience could mean availability based on where you live, price and cost, what you can get to, ease of preparation. (Can I get it? Can I afford it? Can I make it?) Responsibility of actions and their consequences: will this meal make me sick tomorrow, will it in 30 years, what is my place in the food chain, how does what I eat affect the world over time. Taking responsibility very quickly becomes a political issue.
The brain requires a lot of energy and is therefore expensive tissue. Eating more meat provided more energy in smaller packages, allowing the digestive tract to shorten. Because less metabolic energy was being used in the gut, there was more energy to be used in the brain, therefore allowing for brain growth.
Psychoactive RevolutionThe use of food products as drugs. Sugar was used to make rum, coffee beans were used for caffeine. Has continued to make more and more psychoactive products from food sources/plants.Bartolomeo SachhiWrote "Of Honest Intelligence and Good Health," the first known printed cookbook (1465). First printed in latin and then translated. Used a lot of recipes from others, also included etiquette.Maestro Martino of ComoGained his fame from Sacchi's book, which used hundreds of his recipes. Was known as prince of chefs.Bartolomeo ScappiWrote "Opera" which meant "Works". Illustrated cookbook in which utensils appear. Becomes a cook to Popes and their families - sort of like the first celebrity chef.Humoral TheoryThe 4 humors are blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Dietetics became the idea of eating for health and became popular in the renaissance period. Based on phony science such as the humors - ex. Fruit is bad because it is cold and wet and puts out the fire of the stomach.OlivesOlive tree is considered the queen of all trees - can produce fruit for centuries, but could only grow in certain climates (well suited to Italy and Greece). Similar to grapes in the mindset of the ancient world because they were each transformed into something else, the thought process being that only civilized people could perform these technologies. The olives had to be crushed - historically moved from crushing by foot to pestle and mortar to rotary crushers. In the vat, the oil was then skimmed off the top. Olives were used as a dressing/condiment and also medicinally on the skin.CompanagiumEverything eaten in addition to bread and wine. Varied widely based on status - higher status would likely have items like meat or fruit.Sumptuary LawsRules of consumption and methods of control. Ex. how many people could be at the table, how much meat or silverware. Behavior is hard to legislate. Example in America is prohibition: ineffective.Great Chain of BeingA series of analogies between the natural world (which is created by god) and human beings. It was considered self-evident that God created the world and its (societal/hierarchical) laws. Food that grew/existed in the air was considered holier and therefore more suited for those of higher status - upper realms of society destined to eat the upper realms of nature. Matter vs. spirit determined their place in the system. Society and nature mirror each other in their natural and social order.Time of ContactWhen humans override the natural development of life forms which had existed in their own environment for millions of years, and shipped them all around the globe.Alfred CrosbyCoined the term columbian exchangeColumbian ExchangeTransmission of all that the East and West each had to offer.