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98 terms

Chapters 1-3

Test #1
STUDY
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Primate
Member of the mammalian order primates, includes prosimians, monkeys apes and humans, defined by a suite of anatomical and behavioral traits.
Evolution
A change in the frequency of a gene or a trait in a population over multiple generations.
Biological Anthropology
The study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework; sometimes called physical anthropology.
Adaption
A trait that increases the reproductive success of an organism, produced by natural selection in the context of a particular environment.
Hominid
A member of the primate family Homindae. Distinguished by bipedal posture and, in more recently evolved species, large brain.
anthropology
The study of human kind in a cross cultural context. Anthropology includes the subfields cultural anthropology, linguistic anthropology, archaeology, and biological anthropology.
Culture
The sum total of learned traditions, values, and beliefs that groups of people (and a few species of highly intelligent animals) possess.
biocultural anthropology
The study of the interaction between biology and culture, which plays a role in most human traits.
cultural anthropology
The study of human societies, especially in a cross cultural context; the sub division of anthropology that includes ethnology, archaeology, and linguistics.
Ethnology
The study of human societies, their traditions, rituals, beliefs, and the differences between societies in these traits.
Ethnography
The practice of cultural anthropology. Ethnographers study the minute-to-minute workings of human societies, especially non western societies.
linguistic anthropology
the study of language, its origins, and use; also called anthropological linguistics.
Archaeology
The study of material culture of past peoples.
Artifacts
The objects, from tools to art, left by earlier generations of people.
Material Culture
The objects or artifacts of past human societies.
paleoanthropology
the study of the fossil record of ancestral humans and their primate kin.
osteology
the study of the skeleton.
paleopathology
the study of diseases in ancestral human populations.
forensic anthropology
the study of human remains applied to a legal context.
primatology
the study of the nonhuman primates and their anatomy, genetics, behavior, and ecology.
human biology
subfield of biological anthropology dealing with human growth and development, adaption to environmental extremes, and human genetics.
physical anthropology
the study of humans as biological organisms, considered in an evolutionary framework.
Deduction
A conclusion that follows logically from a set of observations
Observation
the gathering of scientific information by watching a phenomenon.
hypothesis
a preliminary explanation of a phenomenon. Hypothesis formation is the first step of the scientific method.
Experimentation
the testing of a hypothesis
scientific method
Standard scientific research procedure in which a hypothesis is state, data are collected to test it, and the hypothesis is either supported or refuted.
data
the scientific evidence produced by an experiment or by observation, from which scientific conclusions are made.
falsifiable
able to be shown to be false
paradigm
a conceptual framework useful for understanding a body of evidence.
immutability (or fixity)
Stasis, lack of change.
taxonomy
The science of biological classification
binomial nomenclature
Linnaean naming system for all organisms, consisting of a genus and species label.
taxon
a group of organisms assigned to a particular category.
catastrophism
theory that there have been multiple creations interspersed by great natural disasters such as Noah's flood.
Theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics
Discredited theory of evolutionary change proposing that changes that occur during the lifetime of an individual, through use or disuse can be passed on to the next generation.
uniformitarianism
Theory that the same gradual geological process we observe today was operating in the past.
Adaptive Radiation
The diversification of one founding species into multiple species and niches.
Natural Selection
differential reproductive success over multiple generations.
population
an interbreeding group of organisms
mutation
an alteration in the DNA that may or may not alter the function of a cell. If it occurs in a gamete, it may be passed from one generation to the next.
fitness
reproductive success
creation science
a creationist attempt to refute the evidence of evolution.
intelligent design
a creationist school of thought that proposes that natural selection cannot account for the diversity and complexity of form and function seen in nature.
pedigree
a diagram used in the study of human genetics that shows the transmission of a genetic trait over generation of a family.
prokaryotes
single-celled organisms, such as bacteria, in which the genetic material is not separated from the rest of the cell by a nucleus.
eukaryotes
a cell that possesses a well-organized nucleus.
nucleus
in eukaryotic cells, the part of the cell in which the genetic material is separated from the rest of the cell (cytoplasm) by a plasma membrane.
Cytoplasm
in a eukaryotic cell, the region within the cell membrane that surrounds the nucleus; it contains organelles, which carry out the essential functions of the cell, such as energy production, metabolism, and protein synthesis.
somatic cells
the cells of the body that are not sex cells.
gametes
the sex cells: sperm in males and eggs (ova) in females.
stem cells
undifferentiated cells found in the developing embryo that can be induced to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types or tissues. Also found in adults, although adult stem cells are not as totipotent as embryonic stem cells.
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a double-stranded molecule that is the carrier of genetic information. Each strand is composed of a linear sequence of nucleotides; the two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds that form between complementary bases.
proteins
complex molecules formed from chains of amino acids (polypeptide) or form a complex of polypeptides. They function as structural molecules and transport molecules, antibodies, enzymes and hormones.
protein synthesis
the assembly of proteins from amino acids that occurs at ribosomes in the cytoplasm and is based on information carried by mRNA.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Single-stranded nucleic acid that performs critical functions during protein synthesis and comes in three forms: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA.
mitochondria
organelles in the cytoplasm of the cell where energy production for the cell takes place. Contains its own DNA.
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
an organelle in the cytoplasm consisting of a folded membrane.
ribosomes
structures composed primarily of RNA that are found on the endoplasmic reticulum. They are the site of protein synthesis.
nucleotide
molecular building block of nucleic acids DNA and RNA; consists of a phosphate, sugar and a base.
base
variable component of the nucleotides that form the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, the bases are adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. In RNA, uracil replaces thymine.
enzyme
a complex protein that is a catalyst for chemical processes in the body.
hemoglobin
protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen.
hormone
a natural substance (often a protein) produced by specialized cells in one location of the body that influences that activity or physiology of cells in a different location.
Amino Acids
molecules that form the basic building blocks of protein
polypeptide
a molecule made up of a chain of amino acids.
genetic code
the system whereby the nucleotide triplets in DNA and RNA contain the information for synthesizing proteins from the twenty amino acids.
codon
a triplet of nucleotide bases in mENA that specifies an amino acid or the initiation or termination of a polypeptide sequence.
gene
the fundamental unit of heredity. Consists of a sequence of DNA bases that carries the information for synthesizing a protein (or polypeptide), and occupies a specific chromosomal locus.
messenger RNA (mRNA)
strand of RNA synthesized in the nucleus as a complement to a specific gene (transcription). It carries the information for the sequence of amino acids to make a specific protein into the cytoplasm, where at a ribosome it is read and a protein molecule synthesized (translation)
transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA molecules that bind to specific amino acids and transport them to ribosomes to be used during protein synthesis.
chromatin
the diffuse form of DNA as it exists during the interphase of the cell cycle.
mitosis
somatic cell division in which a single cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells.
meiosis
cell division that occurs in the testes and ovaries that leads to the formation of sperm and ova (gametes).
chromosome
discrete structures composed of condensed DNA and supporting proteins.
centromere
condensed and constricted region of a chromosome. During mitosis and meiosis, location where sister chromatids attach to one another.
diploid number
full complement of paired chromosome in a somatic cell. In humans, the diploid number is 46 (23 pairs of different chromosomes).
haploid number
the number of chromosome found in a gamete, representing one from each pair found in a diploid somatic cell. In humans, the haploid number is 23.
homologous chromosomes
members of the same pair of chromosomes (or autosomes). homologous chromosomes undergo crossing over during meiosis.
locus
the location of a gene on a chromosome. the locus for a gene is identified by the number of the chromosome on which it is found and its position on the chromosome.
alleles
Alternative versions of a gene. different alleles are distinguished from one another by their different effects on the phenotypic expression of the same gene.
homozygous
having the same allele at the loci for a gene on both members of a pair of homologous chromosome (or autosomes).
heterozygous
having two different alleles at the loci for a gene on a pair of homologous chromosomes (or autosomes).
zygote
a fertilized egg
crossing over
exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosome during the first prophase of meiosis; mechanism for genetic recombination.
recombination
the rearrangement of genes on homologous chromosomes that occurs during crossing over in meiosis. source of variation arising out of sexual reproduction; important for increasing rates of natural selection.
karyotype
the complete chromosomal complement of an individual; usually based on a photograph of the chromosomes visualized under the microscope.
autosomes
any of the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes.
sex chromosomes
in mammals, chromosomes X and Y, with XX producing females and XY producing males.
nondisjunction error
the failure of homologous chromosomes (chromatids) to separate properly during cell division. When it occurs during meiosis, it may lead to the formation of gametes that are missing a chromosome or have an extra copy of a chromosome.
genome
the sum total of all the genes carried by an individual
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Method for amplifying DNA sequences using the Taq polymerase enzyme. Can potentially produce millions or billions of copies of a DNA segment starting from a very small number of target DNA.
mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
Small loop of DNA found in the mitochondria. It is clonal and maternally inherited.
RNA is shaped like:
a cone, instead of a double helix
How many autosomes in somatic cells?
44
All sex characteristics must be found on:
X & Y in sex chromosomes
cultural reality
ways of thinking about the world that are shared by most members of a group
empirical reality
the natural world; science studies things that can be detected by our senses