The flap (superiorly) that closes the nasopharynx while swallowing to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity
What is the epiglottis?
The flap (inferiorly) that folds over the larynx to prevent food and fluids from entering the respiratory tract while swallowing
The larynx is the passage way for what?
What is the esophagus?
A muscular tube which carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach for digestion.(neck->thorax->diaphragm->stomach)
What is the location of the esophagus?
Anterior to the vertebrae within the mediastinum and posterior to the trachea from C6 vertebra to T11 abdomen.
The esophagus extends from:
-The C6 Vertebrae to the Abdomen (From the pharynx to the stomach)
What 2 regions does the diaphragm separate?
-Thoracic Region -Abdominal Region
The esophagus passes through:
The diaphragm at T10
How many sphincters does the esophagus have?
-2, an upper and a lower
What are the sphincters in the esophagus used for?
To prevent back flow of food
What is the esophageal hiatus?
A hole in the diaphragm which the esophagus and vagus nerve run through.
Where is the esophageal hiatus located?
At the T10 Vertebrae
What is the Greater Omentum?
A fold lining the abdominal cavity that prevents the spread of infection and stores fat.
What does the Greater Omentum do?
-Superficial layer of mesentery (Fatty Apron that connects organ to organ) -Moves around when it finds an inflammed organ -Adheres to it and protects the rest of the abdomin from the spread of infection
Where does the greater omentum attach?
Attaches from the greater curvature of the stomach to the transverse colon
Does the greater omentum cover the small and large intestine?
What are the 4 quadrants of the abdomen?
-RUQ: Right Upper Quadrant -LUQ: Left Upper Quadrant -RLQ: Right Lower Quadrant -LLQ: Left Lower Quadrant
In which quadrant is the appendix located?
Right lower quadrant
In which quadrant is the cecum located?
Right lower quadrant
In which quadrant is the ascending colon located?
-Right upper quadrant -Right lower quadrant
In which quadrant is the descending colon located?
-Left upper quadrant -Left lower quadrant
Where does the esophagus meet the stomach?
-J shaped muscular organ -Located just inferior to the diaphragm in the left part of the abdominal cavity (Upper Left Quadrant) -Located between the esophagus and the duodenum -Creates chyme
What is the junction (sphincter) that connects the esophagus to the stomach?
Gastroesophageal (Junction) Sphinter -Prevents backflow of the stomach into the esophagus
The fundus of the stomach:
Is a domed shape region to the left of the cardiac region and superior to the body
The body of the stomach:
Forms the central and largest region of the stomach.
The Pylorus of the stomach is:
-Inferior to the body, funnel shaped region -Thick musculature at the part of the stomach in closest proximity to the duodenum, connects the stomach to the duodenum (region closest to the small intestine) -Contains the pyloric sphincter.
The greater curvature of the stomach:
Extends from the fundus to the pyloric region
The lesser curvature of the stomach:
Extends between the cardiac and pyloric region
What attaches the greater curvature of the stomach?
What attaches to the lesser curvature of the stomach?
What is the largest internal organ located inferior to the diaphragm?
What ligament separates the anatomical right and left lobes of the liver? And attaches the liver to the posterior aspect of the anterior abdominal wall?
What are the 2 anatomical lobes of the liver?
What 2 lobes are found in the inferior aspect of the liver?
-Caudate (Close to the inferior vena cava) -Quadrate (Close to the gallbladder)
What does the liver produce and secrete?
Bile (Can go directly to the small intestine or to the gallbladder)
Which duct has a bi-directional flow of bile from and to the gallbladder?
Cystic Duct -Lies between the gallbladder and the common bile duct
What two ducts form the common hepatic duct?
Right and left hepatic ducts -Drains bile away from the right and left lobes of the liver
What do the cystic duct and and the common hepatic duct form?
Common bile duct -Bile flows into the head of the pancreas -Opens into the duodenum
Where does the pancreatic duct open into?
Dumps into the 2nd part of the duodenum
What stores the bile?
What is the Fundus of the gallbladder?
Most distal portion of the gallbladder from the cystic duct
What do the pancreas produce and secrete?
Pancreatic juice -Contains enzymes that are secreted into the duodenum along with bile coming from the common bile duct
Where do the common hepatic duct which drains into common bile duct unite with the pancreatic duct?
The hepatopancreatic ampulla opens into the duodenum at?
Major duodenal papilla
The biliary system and the pancreas work together for?
The head of the pancreas is located close to?
Right part of the duodenum
The tail of the pancreas is located close to?
What are the three parts of the small intestine?
-Duodenum (C-Shaped 1st part) -Jejunum (Middle, Thicker than the Ileum) -Ileum (Last Part)
Where does most of the absorption and digestion occur?
Small intestine (Proximal regions Duodenum and Jejunum)
What are the parts of the large intestine?
-Cecum (1st part of the large intestine) -Colon -Rectum -Anal Canal
What are the parts of the colon of the large intestine?