in an argument this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. it comes from the Latin meaning "against the man"
a work that functions on a symbolic level throughout a work
the repetition of initial consonant sounds, such as "peter piper picked a peck of pickled peppers"
a reference contained in a work
a literary device employed to serve as a basis for comparison. it is assumed that what applies to the parallel situation also applies to the original circumstance.
a story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate a point
the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers
the presentation of two contrasting images. the ideas are balanced by word, phrase, clause, or paragraphs. "To be or not to be"
a situation in which all parts of the presentation are equal, whether in sentences of paragraphs or sections of a longer work
harsh and discordant sounds in a line or passage in a literary work
the use of slang in writing, often to create local color and to provide an informal tone. Ex. "Huckleberry Finn"
the inclusion of a humorous character or scene to contrast with the tragic elements of a work, thereby intensifying the next tragic event.
those elements that help create coherence in a written piece
the interpretive level of a work based on its associated images rather than its literal meaning
the process of moving from a general rule to a specific example
the literal or dictionary meaning of a word
the aspects of a literary work that elicit pity from the audience. an appeal to emotion that can be used as a means to persuade
appeal based on logic or reason
a persuasive appeal based on the character of a writer