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46 terms

Corrections Exam 2 T/F

STUDY
PLAY
true
The practice we now call probation began in Boston as a result of the efforts of John Augustus, an unpaid volunteer
true
Most states authorized probation for juveniles before authorizing it for adults
true
Pre sentence investigation reports are assumed to help judges in the sentencing process
false
Judges and probation officers differ on sentencing recommendations in 50 to 60 percent of the cases
false
Victim impact statements typically result in judges sentencing defendants more harshly
false
Probationers cannot be incarcerated for violation of technical conditions of their probation
true
In revocation hearings probationers are allowed to testify themselves and to present witnesses on their behalf
true
The use of small caseloads for intensive supervisors officers may result in other probation and parole officers having larger caseloads
false
African Americans are much more likely to be placed on probation that any other racial or ethnic group
true
As a result of a variety of factors, we are likely to see community corrections programs increasing in the next decade
true
Community-based correctional programming may decrease some of the stigma associated with incarceration
false
Recent research has found that most community corrections programs significantly reduce the level of law-violating behavior in program participants
false
In most states the laws require all community-based correctional programs to be operated by a government agency
true
As a result of receiving funding from multiple sources, community corrections program may be accountable to multiple organizations demanding different standards
false
Staff burnout is not a problem we typically associate with non-secure residential treatment programs like halfway houses
false
Very few diversion programs result in net widening
true
House arrest is a fairly old form of punishment
false
Electronic monitoring of offenders has allowed many jurisdictions to shut down jails and prisons
true
One of the deficiencies of electronic monitoring is that it monitors location, but not behavior
false
Jail did not appear in the United States until the early twentieth century
false
Early English jails were designed to punish sentence offenders
true
The 1999 national jails census found that just under 2 percent of the nation's jail inmates were HIV-positive
false
There are more prisons in the United States than there are jails
false
More female inmates are serving time exclusively in women's jails
false
"New-Generation" jails involved just a change in architecture and not a change in management philosophy
true
When jail inmates are left unsupervised for long periods of time, assaults and suicides can occur
true
Some sheriffs use jail assignments as places of punishments for their employees
true
Jails typically have to compete with other, more politically popular programs for local funding
false
No state currently allows for the operation of private jails
false
Jails that operate under state standards and comply with those standards cannot be sued by inmates
false
Most jails operate a full range of inmate treatment programs equal to those of prisons
true
The presence of mentally ill inmates has become an increasing problem in jails in the United States
false
The same due process protections apply to probation revocation hearings as to criminal trials
false
Economic sanctions against offenders initially were used in the 1960's
true
It is estimated that every year, somewhere around 22 million individuals are processed through jails in the United States
true
Total institutions control virtually all aspects of the physical and social environment of the people who live in them.
true
Dehumanization is one of the rites of passage in total institutions
true
The hub of activity for certain types of prisons is called "times square"
false
Traditional, linear-design prisons employ a direct supervision method for inmate housing units
true
Corrections Corporation of American is one of the nation's largest private corrections firms
true
Federal prison camps can best be described as a low-security facilities
true
Prison crowding seems to be most common in public facilities with inmate populations between 1,500 and 2,499
false
Most private correctional facilities in the United States are operating above their rated capacities
false
Currently, there are 1,000 private prisons operating in the United States
true
Most inmate work programs involve prisoners cleaning and caring for the prison and surrounding grounds
true
Nearly 98 percent if the state-operated prions in the U.S. offer counseling programs