Terms in this set (606)

1. Obtain resting HR and BP immediately prior to exercise in the exercise posture.

2. The client should be familiarized with the ergometers. If using a cycle ergometer, properly position the client on the ergometers (upright posture, ~25 degree bend in knee at maximal leg extension, and hands in proper position on handle bars.

3. The exercise test should begin with a 2-3 min warm-up to acquaint the client with the ergometers and prepare him or her for the exercise intensity in the first stage of the test.

4. A specific protocol should consist of 2 or 3 minute stages with appropriate increments in work rate.

5. Heart rate should be monitored at least two times during each stage, near the end of the second and third minutes of each stage. If HR is greater than 110 beats/min, steady state HR should be reached before the workload is increased.

6. BP should be monitored in the last minute of each stage and repeated (verified) in the event of a hypotensive or hypertensive response

7. RPE (using Borg or category-ratio scale) and additional rating scales should be monitored near the end of the last minute of each stage.

8. Client's appearance and symptoms should be monitored and recorded regularly.

9, The test should be terminated when the subject reaches 70% heart rate reserved. (85% age-predicted HR max), fails to conform to the exercise test protocol, experiences adverse signs or symptoms, requests to stop, or experiences an emergency situation.

10. An appropriate cool-down/recovery period should be initiated consisting of either
A. continued exercise at a work rate equivalent to that of the first stage of the exercise test protocol or lower or
b. passive cool-down if the subject experiences signs of discomfort or an emergency situation occurs.

11. All physiologic observations should be continued for at least 5 min of recovery unless abnormal responses occur, which would warrant a longer posttest surveillance period. Continue low-level exercise until HR and BP stabilize, but not necessarily until they reach preexercise levels.
Pretest: Perform a short warm-up and includes some stretches. It is also recommended that the participant refrain from any fast or jerky movements. Participant should remove shoes.

Canadian Trunk Forward Flexion test:

Client sits without shoes and the soles of the feet flat against the flexometer (sit-and-reach box) at the 26 cm mark. Inner edges of the soles are placed within 2 cm of the measuring scale.

YMCA sit and reach:

Yardstick is placed on the floor and tape is placed across it at a right angel to the 15 in mark. The client sits with the yardstick between the legs, legs extended at right angles to the taped line on the floor. Heels of feet should touch the edge of the taped line and be about 10 to 12 in apart. Note the zero point at the foot/box interface and use the appropriate norms.

The client should slowly reach forward with both hands as far as possible, holding this position approximately 2 s. Be sure that the participant keeps the hands parallel and does not lead with one hand. Fingertips can be overlapped and should be inch intact with the measuring portion or yardstick of the sit-and-reach box.

Score is most distant point (cm or in) reached with the fingertips. The best of two trials should be recorded. To assist with the best attempt, the client should exhale and drop the head between the arms when reaching. Testers should ensure that the knees of the participant stay extended, but the knees should not be pressed down. Client should breathe normally and should not hold breath at any time.
Aka prime mover

Controls the joint motion--for example, the tricep is the agonist in a push up. Still Agonists and antagonists

Agonist muscles and antagonist muscles refer to muscles that cause or inhibit a movement.

Agonist muscles cause a movement to occur through their own contraction. [1] For example, the triceps brachii contracts during the up phase of a push-up (elbow extension). During the down phase of a push-up, the same triceps brachii actively controls elbow flexion while relaxing. It is still the agonist, because while resisting gravity during relaxing, the triceps brachii continues to be the prime mover, or controller, of the joint action. (Agonists are also interchangeably referred to as "prime movers," since they are the muscles considered primarily responsible for generating a specific movement. This term typically describes skeletal muscles.[2])

Antagonist muscles oppose a specific movement. [3] This controls a motion, slows it down, and returns a limb to its initial position. Antagonism is not an intrinsic property; it is a role that a muscle plays depending on the motion. If a motion is reversed, agonist and antagonist muscles switch roles. Because a flexor muscle is always a flexor, in flexion it is the agonist, and in extension it is the antagonist. Conversely, an extensor muscle is the agonist in extension and the antagonist in flexion. Using the example above of the triceps brachii during a push-up, the elbow flexor muscles are the antagonists during both the up phase and down phase of the movement.[citation needed]
Stabilizer
A muscle that contracts with no significant movement to maintain a posture or fixate a joint.

Dynamic Stabilizer
A biarticulate muscle that simultaneously shortens at the target joint and lengthens at the adjacent joint with no appreciable difference in length. Dynamic stabilization occurs during many compound movements. The dynamic stabilizer may assists in joint stabilization by countering the rotator force of an agonist. See example diagram: Hamstring weakness regarding hamstring's role in knee integrity (during squat or leg press)

Antagonist Stabilizer
A muscle that contracts to maintain the tension potential of a biarticulate muscle at the adjacent joint. The antagonist stabilizer may be contracted throughout or at only one extreme of the movement. The Antagonist Stabilizer are activated during many isolated exercises when biarticulate muscles are utilized. The Antagonist Stabilizer may assist in joint stabilization by countering the rotator force of an agonist. For example, the Rectus Femoris contracts during lying leg curl to counter dislocating forces of Hamstrings. See knee flexion abduction force vector diagram (Rectus Femoris and Tibialis Anterior). Antagonist Stabilizers also act to maintain postural alignment of joints, including the vertebral column and pelvis. For example, Rectus Abdominis and Obliques counters the Erector Spinae's pull on spine during exercise like the Deadlift or Squat. This counter force prevents hyperextension of the spine, maintaining the tension potential of the Erector Spinae.
Krebs Cycle
The Krebs cycle is a complex series of chemical reactions that continues the oxidization of glucose that was started during glycolysis. Acetyl coenzyme A enters the Krebs cycle and is broken down in to carbon dioxide and hydrogen allowing more two more ATPs to be formed. However, the hydrogen produced in the Krebs cycle plus the hydrogen produced during glycolysis, left unchecked would cause cells to become too acidic (2). So hydrogen combines with two enzymes called NAD and FAD and is transported to the





Electron Transport Chain
Hydrogen is carried to the electron transport chain, another series of chemical reactions, and here it combines with oxygen to form water thus preventing acidification. This chain, which requires the presence of oxygen, also results in 34 ATPs being formed (2).





Beta Oxidation
Unlike glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain can metabolise fat as well as carbohydrate to produce ATP. Lipolysis is the term used to describe the breakdown of fat (triglycerides) into the more basic units of glycerol and free fatty acids (2).

Before these free fatty acids can enter the Krebs cycle they must undergo a process of beta oxidation... a series of reactions to further reduce free fatty acids to acetyl coenzyme A and hydrogen. Acetyl coenzyme A can now enter the Krebs cycle and from this point on, fat metabolism follows the same path as carbohydrate metabolism (5).





Fat Metabolism


So to recap, the oxidative system can produce ATP through either fat (fatty acids) or carbohydrate (glucose). The key difference is that complete combustion of a fatty acid molecule produces significantly more acetyl coenzyme A and hydrogen (and hence ATP) compared to a glucose molecule. However, because fatty acids consist of more carbon atoms than glucose, they require more oxygen for their combustion (2).

So if your body is to use fat for fuel it must have sufficient oxygen supply to meet the demands of exercise. If exercise is intense and the cardiovascular system is unable to supply cells with oxygen quickly enough, carbohydrate must be used to produce ATP. Put another way, if you run out of carbohydrate stores (as in long duration events), exercise intensity must reduce as the body switches to fat as its primary source of fuel.





Protein Metabolism
Protein is thought to make only a small contribution (usually no more 5%) to energy production and is often overlooked. However, amino acids, the building blocks of protein, can be either converted into glucose or into other intermediates used by the Krebs cycle such as acetyl coenzyme A. Protein may make a more significant contribution during very prolonged activity, perhaps as much as 18% of total energy requirements (1).

The oxidative system as a whole is used primarily during rest and low-intensity exercise. At the start of exercise it takes about 90 seconds for the oxidative system to produce its maximal power output and training can help to make this transition earlier (1).

Beyond this point the Krebs cycle supplies the majority of energy requirements but slow glycolysis still makes a significant contribution. In fact, slow glycolysis is an important metabolic pathway even during events lasting several hours or more (2).
Five stages of change
A. Precontemplation (no intention to be regularly active in the next 6 mos)
B. contemplation (intending to be regularly active in the next 6 mos)
C. preparation (intending to be regularly active in the next 30 days)
D. action (regularly active for less than 6 mos)
E. Maintenance (regularly active for 6 mos or more)
Allows for the possibility of repeated relapse and successful change after repeated attempts.

10 processes of change
A. experiential (consciousness raising, dramatic relief, self-reevaluation, social reevaluation, and social liberation)
B. behavioral (self-liberation, counterconditioning, stimulus control, contingency management, and helping relationship)


Decisional balance: an assessment of the relative weighting of the pros and cons of changing exercise behavior. Strong and weak principle says that individuals need to increase their pros of exercising twice as much as they decrease the cons of exercising as they progress through the stages.

Confidence/self-efficacy that increases across the five stages of change

Precontemplation to Contemplation
Processes focus:
Consciousness Raising
Environmental Reevaluation
Dramatic Relief
Decisional Balance:
Pros<Cons
Self-Efficacy: Low

Contemplation to Preparation
Processes Focus:
Consciousness Raising
Environmental Reevaluation
Self-Reevaluation
Dramatic Relief
Decisional Balance:
Pros> Cons
Self-Efficacy: Increasing

Preparation to Action
Process focus:
Self-Liberation
Decisional Balance:
Pros >>Cons
Self-Efficacy: High

Action to Maintenance
Process focus:
Stimulus Control
Reinforcement Management
Counterconditioning
Helping Relationships
Decisional Balance: Pros >>Cons
Self-Efficacy: High
Sub-theory of self-determination theory

CET uses three propositions to explain how consequences affect internal motivation:

1.External events set will impact intrinsic motivation for optimally challenging activities to the extent that they influence perceived competence, within the context of Self-Determination Theory. Events that promote greater perceived competence will enhance intrinsic motivation, whereas those that diminish perceived competence will decrease intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985).[2]

2.Events relevant to the initiation and regulation of behavior have three potential aspects, each with a significant function.

The informational aspect facilitates an internal perceived locus of causality and perceived competence, thus positively influencing intrinsic motivation.

The controlling aspect facilitates an external perceived locus of causality (a person's perception of the cause of success or failure), thus negatively influencing intrinsic motivation and increasing extrinsic compliance or defiance.

The amotivating aspect facilitates perceived incompetence, and undermining intrinsic motivation while promoting disinterest in the task.

The relative salience and strength of these three aspects to a person determines the functional significance of the event (Deci & Ryan, 1985).[2]3. Personal events differ in their qualitative aspects and, like external events, can have differing functional significances. Events deemed internally informational facilitate self-determined functioning and maintain or enhance intrinsic motivation. Events deemed internally controlling events are experienced as pressure toward specific outcomes and undermine intrinsic motivation. Internally amotivating events make incompetence salient and also undermine intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985).[2]
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