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Terms in this set (41)
The source of energy and nutrients for living cells
What must food be small enough to pass through?
The process that breaks down food into simpler form
Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Salivary glands, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
Functions of digestive system
1. Break down food into smaller pieces. 2. Move food along by peristalsis. 3. Produce special chemicals that help digest food. 4. Absorb the digested food into the bloodstream. 5. Absorb water into the bloodstream
The process in which food is physically broken down into tiny pieces
The process in which food is chemically broken down into simpler substances
Where does digestion begin?
Mechanical digestion occurs in the form of chewing, chemical digestion occurs by saliva breaking down starch into sugars
Liquid produced by the salivary glands
Tissue that covers the trachea and prevents food from getting into the lungs
The food tube that connects the throat to the stomach
Rhythmic contractions that move food through the digestive system. Muscles in front of the food relax while the muscles behind the food contract or squeeze. Food is pushed along in a wave-like motion.
Liquid secreted from the stomach lining that provides a slippery surface enabling food to travel along the digestive tube and protects the body from stomach's harsh acids
A ring of muscle that closes an opening or tube
A muscular storage sac that helps break down food into smaller pieces. Can expand to twice its size. Mechanically digests food through churning and chemically secretes mucus and gastric juice. Turns food into a soupy mix called chyme which is passed to small intestine.
Soupy mix food is turned into in the stomach when it is mixed with gastric juice
Mechanical digestion in stomach
Sphincter at the end of the stomach that releases chyme into the small intestine
A protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the body. Chemical digestion is accomplished by these proteins
What do carbohydrates break down into?
What do proteins break down into?
What do fats break down into?
Glycerol and fatty acids
An organ that secretes substances having specific functions in the body
Secreted by the stomach. Composed of hydrochloric acid and pepsin
Protein digesting enzyme that breaks down meat and cheese
Helps pepsin work
Upper portion of the small intestine where the pancreas and liver empty pancreatic juice and bile into
Produces pancreatic juice that contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats
Produces bile which breaks up fat into tiny droplets
Stores the bile
Part of the digestive tube where food is chemically digested and nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream by villi
What are the end products of digestion?
1. Simple sugars 2. Amino acids 3. Glycerols 4. Fatty acids
The process where food leaves the small intestine and moves into the bloodstream by villi
Finger-like structures that move food into the blood vessels through diffusion
Also called colon. Undigested food is passed here from the small intestine and water is absorbed into the bloodstream.
Where feces are stored in the lower part of the large intestine
Where feces are released from the body through a sphincter
The four elements that make up 95% of your body's weight
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Why are nutrients necessary for body processes?
Provide raw materials and energy
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