Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque
Terms in this set (95)
Medieval and renaissance fixed poetic form and chanson type with french courtly texts
Single-line texture, or melody without accompaniment
2+ melodic lines combined into a multivoiced texture
texture with principal melody
and accompanying harmony
Texture in which all voices, or lines, move together in the same rhythm
Earliest kind of polyphonic music. Adds voices above the plainchant
Male voice of high range
Fixed rhythmic patterns of long and short notes (13th century)
Polyphonic. Secular in Middle Ages. Sacred or devotional after Middle Ages
Melodic idea presented in one voice and restated in another. Each part continuing as others enter
Texts change according to day
Texts remain the same each day
(Harp) Used for dancing, singing, recitation. (More sacred than aulos)
(Large lyre) Used in religious ceremonies, generally sacred
Consonant intervals generated through simple ratios
Harmony of the spheres
Math laws and proportions determine astronomical movements as well as musical intervals
Music reflects the order of the universe
Ethical character or behavior
Theory of Imitation
(Aristotle) Music reflects/imitates specific emotional states
Body of texts and rituals assigned to each service according to the calendar
Southern French poets, 12th century
Northern French poets, 13th century
14th century france polyphonic music style whose themes move from religious to secular over time
Incorporates music, poetry, dance
(Reed instrument) Used in drama, generally secular
Short Baroque organ piece in which a traditional chorale melody is embellished
The art of combining in a single texture 2+ melodic lines
Prelude & Fugue
Prelude- Instrumental work proceeding a larger work
Fugue- Polyphonic form popular in Baroque era. 1+ theme(s) are developed by imitative counterpoint
Main idea/theme of a work (as in a fugue)
2nd entry of the subject
Opening section, a statement
Interlude/Intermediate section in the Baroque fugue that serves as an area of relaxation between statements of the subject
A theater's producer who is responsible for selecting performances, works, and making a profit
Famous opera singer
Soprano female singer ("first lady")
Male singer castrated during boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register
The festive season just before Lent. Upside down values/morals, indulgence, anonymity
("continuous bass") A peformance group with a bass, chordal instrument, and one bass melody instrument
Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer
English genre of aristocratic entertainment. Combined vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance (16-17 century)
Ground Bass Aria
Aria that uses a repeating melody in the instrumental accompaniment (usually in the bass)
Large scale Baroque dramatic genre. Based on a religious or serious text. Performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra.
NO scenery, costumes, or action
Da Capo Aria
Ternary aria in ABA form
Baroque multimovement vocal genre with a text based on either a sacred or secular theme. NO staging, scenery, or costumes
German Lutheran congragational hymn
One solo instrument set against the orchestra. 3 movements (slow-fast-slow)
Group of solo instruments set against the orchestra
Group of soloists
"All", the opposite of solo
The larger of the two ensembles in the Baroque concerto grosso
Instrumental music endowed with literary or pictorial associations (Especially popular in 19th century)
Short, recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and Baroque concerto
Multimovement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key
Differentiated through use of characteristic meter, form, tempo. (Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Minuet, Gigue)
Baroque vituoso composition (generally for organ or harpsichord) in a free and rhapsodic style (often an intro to fugue)
Signs placed above the chant text to indicate the melodic gestures for each syllable (only gives contour, not pitches)
Scale or sequence of notes used as the basis for a composition; major and minor
Cycle of daily services of the Roman CatholicChurch, distinct from Mass
Central service of the Roman Catholic Church
A soloist alternates with the choir
More specialized musicians (late 13th century, partially employed at court)
Melodic style with one note to each syllable of text
Melodic style with 2-4 notes set to each syllable
Melodic style characterized by many notes sung to a single text
"Song", French monophonic of polyphonic song, Middle Ages and Renaissance, set to either courtly or popular poetry
Type of forme fixe (strophic). Medieval and Renaissance fixed poetic form and chanson type with courtly love texts
French poetic form and chanson type of the Middle Ages and Renaissance with courtly love texts (Romantic genre)
The themes in one movement returns in a later one. Types: motto, cantus firmus, paraphrase, parody. (1430-1600)
chant melody as basis (polyphonic)
Council of Trent
Council of Roman Catholic Church that convened in Trent, Italy. Dealt with Counter-Reformation issues (ex-reform of liturgical music) (1543-1565)
Renaissance secular work. Originated in Italy for voices (with or without instruments). Set to short, lyric love poem. (Also popular in England)
Song structure that is composed from beginning to end. NO repititions of large sections
Musical pictorialization of words from the text as an expressive device, renaissance madrigal feature
(1600-1750) Emphasis on expression, emotions. New approach to homophonic textures. New uses of harmony and chords. Invention of Opera.
("Prima Practica") Josquin Palestrina- Older Renaissance style, used primarily for sound music, harmony rules text
("Seconda Practica") Monteverdi and his contemporaries- New, modern style; focuses on expression of the text (text rules harmony)
Baroque vocal style, solo and instrument accompaniment
Musical drama, generally sung throughout. Combines vocal and instrumental with poetry & drama, acting & pantomime, scenery & costumes
text/script (of an opera) prepared by a Librettist
An intro movement (as in an opera or oratorio). Often presenting melodies from arias to come
Lyric vocal song with orchestra accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion (opera, cantata, oratorio)
Solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text, often results in a disjunct vocal style (opera, cantata, oratorio). can be secco or accompagnato)
Group of writers, artists, and musicians that collaborated to revive ancient greek drama. Invented new approach to texture: monody.
A medieval European conception of nobly and chivalrously expressing love and admiration. Generally, courtly love was secret and between members of the nobility.
Sparse accompaniment and usually only a basso continuo instrument accompanied recitative
Mass proper. (Responsorial)
Nun, visionary, and prophet who wrote poems, person accounts and books on religion, science and medicine.
Characterized her music by- melismas, wide vocal ranges and large leaps.
"Puis qu'en oubli"
Written in the mid 14th century.
Duple --> Triple --> Duple meter
"Pope Macellus Mass, Gloria"
From a setting of the Ordinary.
Monophonic chant opening.
Changes of density and texture set in various registers. A cappella performance.
Alteration of homorythmic and polyphonic textures.
Full consonant harmony.
He was an organist and choir master at various churches including St. Peters in Rome.
Known for over 100 masses as well as madrigals and motets.
Polyphonic --> Monophonic --> Homorythmic
Duple --> Triple
"Dido and Aneas"
Emotion + slow moving song
(Rejoice Greatly and Hallelujah Chorus)
3-part Oratorio (Christmas, Easter, Redemption sections)
Rejoice Greatly: Soprano Aria, A-B-A', melismas on "rejoice"
Halleluja Chorus: Switches between homorhythm and imitative polyphony
"The Four Seasons"
Violinist and priest
Worked as a music teacher at an orphanage
Wrote operas, sacred vocal music, instrumental works Worked from the pope and nobility
"As Vesta Was"
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