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Psychology - OCD
Terms in this set (27)
a recurring and persistent thought that interferes with normal behavior
recurring action that a person is forced to enact
where irresistible thoughts and actions must be acted on
1) Obsessions, compulsions or both 2) Recognized that the behaviors/thoughts are excessive or unreasonable 3) Cause distress, time consuming and interferes with normal routine 4) Symptoms not caused by another condition 5)Not Due to the effect of a substance or general medical condition
Average life time prevalence is 1.6%. &0% who have OCD have both obsessions and compulsions. Equally common in both genders
Charles (Rappaport 1989)
Charles' obsession was to do away with the sticky substance he always felt on his skin. His compulsion was taking showers all the time and performing certain cleaning rituals.
Case Study (Wash, Wash, Wash)
Sarah takes a long bath before she washes her arms and hands for an hour. She wants to stop but she doesn't feel clean. She has to change something if it isn't perfect.
Case Study (Am I a murderer) Goldstein and Palmer 1975
Shirley has frequent headaches and dizziness spells. For the past three months, she has been having recurring thoughts that she might harm her son by stabbing or choking him.
Case Study (All I do is count)
This person looks at words and must count the letters. There is no specific reason. The individual also presses the off button on things usually three times.
Case Study (Hoarding for life) Rapoport 1989
This person has been hoarding things for the past 7 years. He/she feels compelled to save everything.
Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory
Designed by Hodgson and Rachman (1977). It is a self-report questionnaire using forced choice. 30 questions with 4 sub scales (Checking, Cleaning/Washing, Slowness, Doubting). Score is between 0 and 30.
Yale-Brown Inventory Scale
rating scale with past/present checklist. list obsessions and compulsions with emphasis. rates severity and type of symptoms.
Biological Explanation (Genetics)
family of OCD 10x more likely, could be due to SLT. Twin Studies show some inheritance (Shields and Slater)
Biological Explanation (Brain Functioning)
Abnormal functioning in the orbital region of the frontal cortex and/or caudate nuclei.
Biological Explanation (Neurotransmitters)
Associated with low levels of Serotonin. Antidepressants, like Prozac (SSRI's) also reduce the symptoms of OCD. Lack of Serotonin could be an effect not cause. Anafranil is more effective than other TCAs
Cognitive & Behavioral (Two Process Theory)
exposure to a stimuli produces anxiety for fear of it. Exposure is followed by an anxiety relieving behavior. The anxiety is reinforced because of that behavior (negative reinforcement)
Cognitive & Behavioral (Cognitive Bias, Beck)
Looks at why people misinterpret their thoughts associated with the object or situation and how these become obsessions. Has 3 errors in logic: catastrophic misinterpretation, hyper-vigilance, and memory problems.
irrational ideas concerning unfortunate consequences if they don't perform their rituals
OCD sufferers are always on the look out for the sources of their obsessions
often show poor memory for actions
conflict between the id and ego, which creates anxiety. Impulsive nature of the id may be responsible for the creation of obsessive thoughts, while the ego may create compulsive behavior to try to counteract the obsessive thoughts and resolve the conflict.
Biological Treatments (Drug Therapy)
-Works by increasing the level of Serotonin
-Some reduction in symptoms, but isn't very effective on its own. High relapse rate and side effects include headaches and nausea.
Cognitive Behavioral therapy
Attempts to change the conscious thought processes
1. Helping people understand that they are misinterpreting their thoughts
2. Making people aware of how they try to neutralize the obsessive thoughts by attempting to make amends for having such thoughts
Cognitive Behavioral therapy (2)
Then the therapist tries to stop the person from catastrophizing. Either remove the obsessive thoughts or think of them in a different way.
the patient thinks repeatedly about their obsessions. This will cause the patient to become less anxiety raising.
Behavioral (Exposure and Response Prevention)
ERP focuses on treating the compulsions. It exposes the client to situations within an anxiety hierarchy.
1. Inform about ERP
2. Exposure hierarchy
3. Repeated exposure until level of anxiety reduces
4. Getting the client to resist and refrain from performing the compulsive behavior
looks at the underlying cause of the disorder. Believed that the O-C symptoms will disappear once the conflict has been realized and analyzed.
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