24 terms

Earth Sci Chapter 22 - Sun and Solar System

Science Sun Solar System
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Geocentric Theory
A theory that states the sun and planets revolve around the earth.
Heliocentric Theory
A theory that states the earth and other planets revolve around the sun.
Inertia
The tendency of a moving object to continue moving, or an object that is at rest to remain at rest.
Gravity
The attractive forces between two objects, its magnitude between the two objects.
Orbit
The path of an object as it revolves around another object in space.
Ellipse
Is an elongated circle, or oval shape, The orbit of planets is not a perfect circle but elliptical.
Revolution
The movement of an object around another object.
Rotation
The spinning motion of a planet or other object about it axis.
Energy
The ability to do work or supply heat.
Nuclear Fusion
The process by which hydrogen atoms join to form helium, releasing energy.
Nuclear Fission
The process by which a uranium nucleus is spit apart capturing a neutron.
Radiation
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.
Core
The central part of the sun, where nuclear fusion occurs.
Photosphere
The boundary between the Sun's interior and the solar atmosphere
Chromosphere
The lower layer of the sun's atmosphere.
Corona
The outer layer of the sun's atmosphere.
Solar Wind
A stream of electrically charged particles produced by the sun's corona.
Magnetic Storms
Storms that occur in the earth's upper atmosphere as a result of solar winds.
Prominence
A loop of gas that protrudes from the sun's surface, linking parts of sunspot regions.
Solar Flare
An explosion of hydrogen gas from the Sun's surface that occurs when loops in sunspot regions suddenly connect.
Sunspot
An area of gas on the sun is cooler than the gases around it.
Kepler's 1st Law
Elliptical Orbits Law: each planet orbits the sun in a path called an ellipse with the sun at one focus
Kepler's 2nd Law
Equal Area Law: the planets move faster when closer to the Sun, but their ellipses sweep through an equal area in equal time
Kepler's 3rd Law
Harmonic Motion Law: A³ = P²
bigger orbits (A) take longer (P), using the relationship orbital distance cubed is proportional to time needed for orbit squared