MUSC 201 Midterm
TAMU Ian Rollins Midterm Review
Terms in this set (100)
S in SHMRG
Sound. Includes texture, instrumentation, dynamics and timbre
H in SHMRG
Harmony. Consonant vs Dissonant
M in SHMRG
Melody. Conjunct or Disjunct. Flowing or not.
R in SHMRG
Rhythm. Includes tempo.
G in SHMRG
Growth/form. Binary, Rounded Binary, Strophic.
Medieval Era dates
Renaissance Era dates
Baroque Era dates
Classical Era dates
-Rhythm not notated
-Harmony a byproduct of counterpoint
-Binary and Strophic forms
-Use of repetition
-Polyphonic, some homophonic
-Relies heavily on scales
-Clean, balanced, symmetrical
-Little to no ornamentation
Hildegard of Bingen
Medieval composer. Wrote chants, had visions, interested in arts and sciences.
Guillame de Machaut
Medieval. First mass composer. First singer/song writer.
Renaissance. Teacher, composer, performer, publisher.
Baroque. First opera composer. Italian
Baroque. Wrote Dido and Aenas - his only full opera.
Baroque. German composer, influenced by italian music. Composed every current genre. Considered first "classical" composer. Known for vocal music and ontarios.
Baroque. Bridge between baroque and classical. Best fugue and concerto composer. Dense sound, no cadences. Inventive. Expansive in length.
Baroque. Wrote 500 concertos. Named his movements - the Four Seasons.
Baroque. First composer to make a name for himself. Very influential, music widely circulated. Violinist.
Classical. Father of the string quartet and symphony. Austrian, influenced by italian music. Taught beethoven. Worked for the Esterhayz's.
Classical. Austrian, influenced by italian music. Child star. Violin and piano. Wrote operas and instrumentals.
1. Exposition - all voices (3-6)
2. Episode - subject not used
3. Entry - subject restated
4. Answer - subject repeated in different pitch
Classical Sonata form
1. Expo: theme 1
2. Transition: modulates, theme 2
3. Development: modulates, unstable
4. Recap: everything repeated, tonic key.
5. Coda (maybe)
Classical concerto form
1. A - orchestra, expo
2. A - soloists, expo again
3. B - soloist and orch, development
4. A - soloist and orch, recap
5. C - soloist, cadenza
6. C - orchestra, coda
Baroque Suite movements
-Allemande: french for german
-Couremente: french dance with italian counterpart
-Sarabande: slow, stately spanish dance
-Gigue: duple meter dance
String Quartet/Symphony movements
1. Fast, sonata form
2. Slow, any form
4. Fast, sonata or rondo
What is rondo form?
Similar to ritornello. ABACADAEA, etc.
How long did the Medieval Era last?
What is chant?
Plain or gregorian. Vocal, monophonic, sacred, latin (not vernacular)
What is an antiphon?
Chant with prose text
Most medieval composers were...
Medieval musical texts were in ____, and most were ____.
Who were minstrels?
Medieval performers - court slaves
Who were troubadours?
Medieval performers - sang of love
The first preserved instrumental music was for what?
_____ is a popular medieval couple dance in a lively, triple meter.
Who was Frances Densmore?
Famous enthnomusicologist. Intent on preserving a dying culture. Recorded tapes of Native American music for the Smithsonian on a phonograph.
Renaissance music is heavily _____.
Renaissance often uses _____ as well.
Characteristics of the madrigal?
A capella, polyphonic, choir set up. Word painting.
The ____ was the most popular form of aristocratic entertainment of it's time.
The goal of the madrigal?
To emphasize WORDS - let music enhance the message of the texts (hence the use of word painting)
What is a consort?
A small group of instruments
What is obligato?
A second melody playing under the first
What are vanitas?
Paintings to show ones interests, hobbies, loves, etc.
What is memento mori?
"remember death" - reminder that you can't take material goods with you after death.
Typically, Renaissance and Medieval music did not specify ______.
What is idiomatic composition?
The beginning of the Baroque era is marked by the _____.
The end of the Baroque era is marked by _____.
What says that music should evoke one emotion per movement?
Doctrine of Affections
The Baroque era began using more ____.
What is an oratorio?
Like an opera, but has a sacred message. No costumes and no staging.
What is a basso continuo?
Bass line played by cello + a chord playing instrument (piano, harpsichord, guitar, lute, organ)
What is a basso ostinato?
Repeating bass line
What is a counter tenor?
Like castrati, but not castrated. Males who have a high range naturally.
Who were the castrati?
Stars of the opera - castrated males. Strength of a mans voice, with pitch of a woman's. Often come from poor families who want their chance at wealth.
Who created the opera?
What was the "florentine camerada" interested in?
Intellectuals, philosophers interested in greek drama.
What are the 2 main parts of the opera? (Explain)
-Recitative: when the action happens, story progresses. Sung dialogue, often with a basso continuo.
-Aria: accompanied solo, operatic melody. Normal song.
What is an overture?
An instrumental piece often played before the curtains open for an opera. Typically all the songs about to be played, condensed into one.
Baroque operas were typically...
Who was the best fugue composer?
What are the 3 components of an organ?
-one or more sets of pipes
(stops: rows of pipes)
-mechanism for blowing air through the pipes
What were the core baroque instruments?
Harpsichord and strings
The harpsichord has a _____ made of _____ to pluck strings to produce noise.
The harpsichord can't control _____ by touch.
What is the difference between a sonata and concerto?
A sonata was for a small group or soloist - a concerto was for a large group (orchestra)
What is a movement?
A concise section of a larger work
What is the opposite of a sonata?
Cantata - vocal music
How many instruments are in a trio sonata? What are they?
4 - basso continuo, and 2 melody instruments.
What is an opus?
Typically followed by a number to identify a work
What was the dominant orchestral genre?
What is a concerto grosso?
small group of soloists plus the orchestra
What is a solo concerto?
One soloist plus the orchestra
What does "tutti" mean?
All together - whole orchestra
Vivaldi's four seasons is an example of _____.
Opposite of program music?
The Classical Era happened at the same time as the _____.
Age of Enlightenment
Classical music is extremely ______.
Balanced, symmetrical, clean.
Why did composers have to write for a broader audience?
Theaters and concert halls became more open to the public
Who were the most prominent composers of the classical era?
Haydn and Mozart
_____ music surpassed _____ music in the classical era.
Why did instrumental music surpass vocal?
The rise of the orchestra
What is the classical sonata?
An independent multi-movement form. 3 movements, fast slow fast.
The classical sonata featured either _____ alone, or _____ plus _____.
Keyboard alone, or keyboard and a melody instrument.
_____ form is usually used in first movements.
What is modulation?
The process of changing keys
What did Bartolommeo Cauistofori do?
Create the piano
What instruments are in a string quartet?
2 violins, a voila, and a cello.
The ____ grew substantially in the classical era
How did the orchestra grow?
Expanded the string section. Added woods, brass, and percussion.
What is a cadenza?
Improvisational piece played by a soloist
What is a coda?
A piece played by the entire orchestra to signal the end of a work.
Dion Giovanni is a ____.
Opera buffa (with serious ending)
How does a soloist signal the end of a cadenza?
By playing a long trill
How does the Classical concerto differ from the Baroque?
In classical, the soloist is set against the orchestra. In Baroque, the soloist emerged from the orchestra.