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Chapter 1 (Keywords): Introducing Hardware

flashcards based on CompTIA A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC by Jean Andrews
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hardware
the physical components that constitute the computer system, such as the monitor, the keyboard, the motherboard, and the printer.
software
computer programs, or instructions, to perfor, a specific task. Software may be BIOS, OS's, or application software such as a word processing or spreadsheet program
binary number system
the number system used by computers; it has only two numbers, 0 and 1, called binary digits, or bits
byte
a collection of eight bits that can represent a single character
CPU
(central processing unit) Also called a microprocessor or processor. The heart and brain of the computer, which receives data input, processor information, and executes instructions
processor
central processing unit. The heart and brain of the computer, which receives data input, processor information, and executes instructions
microprocessor
central processing unit. The heart and brain of the computer, which receives data input, processor information, and executes instructions
port
A physical connector, usually at the back of a computer, that allows a cable from a peripheral device, such as a printer, mouse or modem to be attached
keyboard
a common input device through which data and instructions may be typed into computer memory
mouse
a pointing and input device that allows the user to move a cursor around a screen and select items with the click of a button
monitor
the most commonly used output device for displaying text and graphics on a computer
printer
a peripheral output device that produces printed output to paper. Different types include dot matrix, ink-jet, and laser printer
hard copy
output from a printer to paper
adapter card
a small circuit board inserted in an expansion slot and used to communicate between the system bus and a peripheral device. Also called an interface card, expansion cards, or simply cards.
expansion cards
a small circuit board inserted in an expansion slot and used to communicate between the system bus and a peripheral device. Also called an interface card, adapter cards, or simply cards.
cards
a small circuit board inserted in an expansion slot and used to communicate between the system bus and a peripheral device. Also called an interface card, adapter cards, or expansion cards.
expansion slots
a narrow slot on the motherboard where an expansion card can be inserted. Expansion slots connect to a bus on the motherboard
CMOS
(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) The technology used to manufacture microchips. CMOS chips require less electricity, hold data longer after the elctricity is turned off, and produce less heat than earlier technologies. The configuration or setup chip is a CMOS chip.
motherboard
the main board in the computer. Also called the system board. The CPU, ROM chips, DIMMs, RIMMs, and interace cards are plugged into the motherboard
main board
motherboard. the main board in the computer. Also called the system board. The CPU, ROM chips, DIMMs, RIMMs, and interace cards are plugged into the motherboard
system board
motherboard. the main board in the computer. Also called the system board. The CPU, ROM chips, DIMMs, RIMMs, and interace cards are plugged into the motherboard
peripheral device
Devices that communicate with the CPU but are not located directly on the motherboard, such as the monitor, floppy drive, printer and mouse
parallel port
a female 25-pin port ona computer that can transmit data in parallel, 8 bits at a time, and is usually used with a printer. The names for parallel ports are LPT1 and LPT 2.
S/PDIF
Sony-Phillips Digital Interface sound port - a sound port that connects to an external home theater audio system, provideing digital output and the best signal quality.
USB port
(universal serial bus) A type of port designed to make installation and configuration of I/O devices easy, providing room for as any as 127 devices daisy chaned together
serial port
a male 9 pin or 25 pin port on a computer system used by slower I/O devices such as a mouse or a modem. Data travels serially, one bit at a time, throught the port. Serial ports are sometimes configured as COM1, COM2, COM3, and COM4.
chipset
a group of chips on the motherboard that controls the timing and the flow of data and instructions to and from the CPU
primary storage
temporary storage on the motherboard use by the CPU to process data and instructions. Memory is considered primary storage.
memory
temporary storage on the motherboard use by the CPU to process data and instructions. Memory is considered primary storage.
secondary storage
storage that is remote to the CPU and permenantly holds data, even when the PC is turned off, such as a hard drive
RAM
(random access memory). Memory modules on the motherboard containing microchips used to temporarily hold data and programs while the CPU processes both. Information in RAM is lost when the PC is turned off.
video memory
memory used by the video controller. The memory might be contained on a vdieo card or be part of system memory. When part of system memory, the memory is dedicated by Windows to video.
volatile
refers to a kind of RAM that is temporary, cannot hold data very long and must be frequently refreshed.
non-volatile memory
refers to a kind of RAM that is stable and can hold data as long as electricity is powering the memory.
hard drive
The main secondary storage device pf a PC. Two technologies are currently used by hard drives: magnetic and solid state
HDD
Hard Disk Drive. Also known as hard drive. The main secondary storage device pf a PC. Two technologies are currently used by hard drives: magnetic and solid state
magnetic hard drives
one of two technologies used by hard drives where data is stored as magnetic spots on disks that rotate on high speed. The other technology is solid state drive (SSD).
SSD
(Solid State Drive) a hard drive that has no moving parts
SATA
(serial ATA) an ATAPI cabling method that uses a narrower and more reliable cable than the 80-conductor cable
PATA
Parallel ATA. An older IDE cabling method that uses a 40-pin flat or round data cable or an 80-conductor cable and a 40-pin IDE connector. See also serial ATA.
flash ROM
ROM that can be reproggrammed or changed without replacing chips
floppy drive
a drive that can hold either a 5 ½ or 3 ½ inch floppt disk. Also called FDD.
FDD
Floppy disk drive. a drive that can hold either a 5 ½ or 3 ½ inch floppt disk. Also called floppy drives.
traces
a wire on a circuit board that connects two components or devices
bus
a wire on a circuit board that connects two components or devices
protocol
a set of rules and standards that two entities use for communication
data bus
the lines on the system bus that the CPU uses to send and receive data
data path size
the number of lines on a bus that can hold data, for example, 8, 16, 32, and 64 lines, which can accommodate 8, 16, 32 and 64 bits at a time.
system bus
the bus between the CPU and memory on the motherboard. The bus frequency in documentation is called the system speed, such as 400 MHz. Also called the memory bus, front side bus, local bus, or host bus.
FSB
Front side bus. the bus between the CPU and memory on the motherboard. The bus frequency in documentation is called the system speed, such as 400 MHz. Also called the memory bus, front side bus, local bus, or host bus.
host bus
the bus between the CPU and memory on the motherboard. The bus frequency in documentation is called the system speed, such as 400 MHz. Also called the memory bus, front side bus, local bus, or host bus.
system clock
a line on a bus that is dedicated to timing the activities of components coonnected to it. The system clock provides a continuous pulse that other devices use to time themselves.
clock speed
the speed, or frequency, expressed in MHz, that controls activity on the motherboard and is generated by a crystal or oscillator located somewhere on the motherboard
Hz
Hertz. Unit of measurement for frequency, calculated in terms of vibrations, or cycles per second. For example, for 16-bit stereo sound, a frequency of 44,000 Hz is used.
MHz
Unit of measurement for frequency, calculated in terms of vibrations, or cycles per second. For example, for 16-bit stereo sound, a frequency of 44,000 Hz is used.
GHz
One thousand MHz, or one billion cycles per second
video card
an interface card installed in the computer to control visual output on a monitor. Also called display adapter or graphics card.
graphics card
an interface card installed in the computer to control visual output on a monitor. Also called display adapter or graphics card.
power supply
a box inside the computer case that supplies power to the motherboard and other installed devices. Power supplies provide 3.3, 5 and 12 volts DC. Also called a power supply unit (PSU)
BIOS
firmware that can control much of a computer's input/output functions, such as communication with the floppy drive and the monitor
program
a set of step-by-step instructions to a computer. Some are burned directly into chips, while others are stored as program files. Programs are written in languages such a sVisual Basic and C++
firmware
Software that is permenantly stored in a chip. The BIOS on a motherboard is an example of firmware.
system BIOS
BIOS located on the motherboard
startup BIOS
Part of system BIOS that is responsible for controlling the PC when it is first turned on. Start up BIOS gives control over to the OS once it is loaded
BIOS setup
the program in system BIOS that can change the values in CMOS RAM. Also called CMOS setup.
CMOS setup
(complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) The technology used to manufacture microchips. CMOS chips require less electricity, hold data longer after the elctricity is turned off, and produce less heat than earlier technologies. The configuration or setup chip is a CMOS chip.
CMOS RAM
memory contained on the CMOS chip
flash ROM
ROM that can be reproggrammed or changed without replacing chips