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another name for the spoils system, in which government jobs or favors are given out to political allies and friends


a partial refund to lower the rate of a good or commodity


political movement founded in the 1890s representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other large industries


a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War


the loss of value of money


a decline in the volume of available money or credit that results in lower prices, and, therefore, increases the buying power of money


store where farmers bought products from each other; an enterprise owned and operated by those who use its services

graduated income tax

tax based on the net income of an individual or businsss and which taxes different income levels at different rates


a person who believes that American currency should be based on a gold standard


person who believes that coining silver currency in unlimited quantities will eliminate economic crisis


farmer who works land for an owner who provides eqiupment and seed and receives a share of the crop

poll tax

a tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote

grandfather clause

a clause that allowed individuals who did not pass the literacy test to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction began; an exception to a law based on preexisting circumstances


the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group

Jim Crow laws

statutes or laws created to enforce segregation


an execution performed without lawful approval


the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation


a country that is technically independent but is actually under control of another country

yellow journalism

type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers


extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy

sphere of influence

section of a countrty where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers

Open Door policy

a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations' spheres of influence

dollar diplomacy

a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad


a political movement that crossed party lines which believed that industrialism and urbanization had created many social problems and that government should take a more active role in dealing with these problems

commission plan

a plan in which a city's government is divided into different departments with different functions, each placed under the control of a commissioner

direct primary

a vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office


the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval


the practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature


the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office


the right to vote


moderation in or abstinence from alcohol


laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages


belief that business should be publicly owned and run by the government

Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelt's promise of fair and equal treatment for all


settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider


a business group



income tax

a tax based on the net income of a person or business

unfair trade practices

trading practices which derive a gain at the expense of the competition


a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society

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