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40 terms

Glencoe American Republic Since 1877 Chapters 11-13 Vocabulary

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patronage
another name for the spoils system, in which government jobs or favors are given out to political allies and friends
rebate
a partial refund to lower the rate of a good or commodity
populism
political movement founded in the 1890s representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other large industries
greenback
a piece of U.S. paper money first issued by the North during the Civil War
inflation
the loss of value of money
deflation
a decline in the volume of available money or credit that results in lower prices, and, therefore, increases the buying power of money
cooperative
store where farmers bought products from each other; an enterprise owned and operated by those who use its services
graduated income tax
tax based on the net income of an individual or businsss and which taxes different income levels at different rates
goldbug
a person who believes that American currency should be based on a gold standard
silverite
person who believes that coining silver currency in unlimited quantities will eliminate economic crisis
sharecropper
farmer who works land for an owner who provides eqiupment and seed and receives a share of the crop
poll tax
a tax of a fixed amount per person that had to be paid before the person could vote
grandfather clause
a clause that allowed individuals who did not pass the literacy test to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had voted before Reconstruction began; an exception to a law based on preexisting circumstances
segregation
the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group
Jim Crow laws
statutes or laws created to enforce segregation
lynching
an execution performed without lawful approval
imperialism
the actions used by one nation to exercise political or economic control over a smaller or weaker nation
protectorate
a country that is technically independent but is actually under control of another country
yellow journalism
type of sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers
jingoism
extreme nationalism marked by aggressive foreign policy
sphere of influence
section of a countrty where one foreign nation enjoys special rights and powers
Open Door policy
a policy that allowed each foreign nation in China to trade freely in the other nations' spheres of influence
dollar diplomacy
a policy of joining the business interests of a country with its diplomatic interests abroad
progressivism
a political movement that crossed party lines which believed that industrialism and urbanization had created many social problems and that government should take a more active role in dealing with these problems
commission plan
a plan in which a city's government is divided into different departments with different functions, each placed under the control of a commissioner
direct primary
a vote held by all members of a political party to decide their candidate for public office
initiative
the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval
referendum
the practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature
recall
the right that enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office
suffrage
the right to vote
temperance
moderation in or abstinence from alcohol
prohibition
laws banning the manufacture, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages
socialism
belief that business should be publicly owned and run by the government
Square Deal
Theodore Roosevelt's promise of fair and equal treatment for all
arbitration
settling a dispute by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider
syndicate
a business group
insubordination
disobedience
income tax
a tax based on the net income of a person or business
unfair trade practices
trading practices which derive a gain at the expense of the competition
muckraker
a journalist who uncovers abuses and corruption in a society