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Herman Cortes

He was a Spanish explorer who conquered the Native American civilization of the Aztecs in 1519 in what is now Mexico.

christopher columbus

An Italian navigator who was funded by the Spanish Government to find a passage to the Far East. He is given credit for discovering the "New World," even though at his death he believed he had made it to India. He made four voyages to the "New World." The first sighting of land was on October 12, 1492, and three other journies until the time of his death in 1503.

peace of augsburg

This was the treaty that was reached that ended the Habsburg-Valois Wars which also made Charles V recognize Lutheranism as a legitimate following

prince henry the navigator

This was the Portuguese Prince that gave steadfast financial and moral support to the navigators

vasco de gama

A Portugese sailor who was the first European to sail around southern Africa to the Indian Ocean

columbian exchange

The exchange of goods and ideas between Native Americans and Europeans

vasco nunez de balboa

Crossed the Isthmus of Panama and is considered first explorer to see Pacific Ocean from Americas, Spanish explorer who became the first European to see the Pacific Ocean in 1510 while exploring Panama

ferdinand magellan

Portuguese explorer who found a sea route to the Spice Island by sailing around the American continent. His crew was the first to circumnavigate the world.

treaty of tordesillas

Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.


spanish soldiers and explorers who led military expeditions in the Americas and captured land for Spain

fransisco pizzaro

the spanish conquistador that conquered the mighty inca indians

encomeinda system

when spain gave landowners the right to use the labor of native americans who lived on their land

bartolome de las casas

First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476


top people, the ruling class, have to be born in spain/porugual, 100% spanish or Portuguese, usually returned to spain when term of office was over.


descendents of Spanish-born BUT born in Latin America; resented inferior social, political, economic status


A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory


persons of mixed European and African ancestry

joint stock company

A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.

Catherine de' Medici

In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Caterina married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. Under the gallicised version of her name, Catherine de Médicis, she was Queen consort of France as the wife of King Henry II of France from 1547 to 1559.

edict of nantes

1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.


French political faction with no strong religious ties that tried to manipulate political divisions in France for its own political gain.

philip II

son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)

elizabeth I

This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

thirty years war

(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

peace of westphalia

Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.

st. bartholomews day massacre

Begun 24 August 1572 and extending over several weeks, the most violent series of fights between French Catholics and Protestants, each side wanted control over the weak French government.

spanish armada

the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588

henry IV

the first Lancastrian king of England from 1399 to 1413

cardinal richelieu

French prelate and statesman

raison d'etat

Political theory articulated by French statesmen Richelieu (1585-1642) that holds that the interests and needs of the state may take precedence over traditional moral and international law.

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