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49 terms

Ch 7 Bones

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The skeleton does not
store red blood cells
Osseous tissue is a(an)_______tissue.
Connective
These are all tissues that are a part of a long bone except (osseous tissue, nervous tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, transitional epithelium)
Transitional epithelium
This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "1" represent
Marrow cavity
This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent?
epiphyseal line
This images shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "5" represent?
articular cartilage
The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called?
an ephiphysis
A bone covered externally with a sheath called______, whereas the internal surface is lined with________.
periosteum: endosteum
__________are bone- forming cells.
Osteoblasts
When_______become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called_________.
osteoblasts: osteocytes
This image shows the histology of osseous tissue . Label "2" represents _______, which is (are)_____.
lacunae; sites of residence of osteocytes
Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?
hydroxyapatite
Spicules and trabeculae are found in _______.
spongy bone
Red bone marrow does not contain_____.
yellow bone marrow.
________provide(s) hardness to bones, whereas______provide(s) some degree of flexibility.
Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins
______have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas ______have long, thin, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.
Osteoblasts; osteocytes
What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?
yellow bone marrow
Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?
Osteoclasts
_______are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone.
Central canals
Intramembranous ossification produces the
flat bones of the skull
In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is_______, which is replaced by bone.
hyaline cartilage
The______is a marginal zone of the epiphyseal plate where, in children and adolescents, bone can be seen replacing the hyaline cartilage.
metaphysis
A chondroplastic dwarfism is a heriditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in teh
epiphyseal plate
Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis.
zone of cell proliferation
Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing
appositional growth.
Bone elongation is a result of
cartilage growth
Wolff's law of bone explains the effect of
mechanical stress on bone remodeling.
A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas areas are
elastic cartilage and epiphyseal plate.
_______is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream.
Resorption
Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition?
The first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
Phosphate is necessary for all of the following except (atp, dna, phospolipids, rna, amino acids)
Amino acids
Calcium plays an essential role in all of the following except (muscle contraction, exocytosis, blood clotting, dna synthesis, communication among neurons)
DNA synthesis
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) does not
lower blood calcium
______is synthesized by the combined action of the skin, kidneys and liver, and is important to the deposition of bone.
Calcitrol
Which of these is not an effect of calcitrol?
cartilage growth in the epiphyseal plate
_______does not put women at risk of hypocalcemia.
Removal of the thyroid gland
Blood CA2+ deficiency stimulates_______secretion, which leads to_______.
parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity
Arteriosclerosis is one example of ectopic ossification, which means
abnormal calcification of a tissue.
Hypocalcemia can cause
spasms
If a thyroid tumor secreted an excessive amount of calcitonin, we would except
an elevated level of osteoblast activity.
A soft callus forms during
the healing of a fracture.
Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of_______, which would otherwise inhibit_______.
estrogen; osteoclast activity
A fracture in which the bone is broken in three or more pieces is called______in children and ______in adults.
comminuted
The results of calcium and phosphate levels in blood too low for normal deposition is a softness of the bones called_____in children and ______in adults.
rickets; osteomalacia
Bone protrudes through the skin in a fracture called
open
A pathologic fracture
is a break in a bone that happens repeatedly
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events in the healing of a bone fracture
hematoma formation-> soft callus formation-> hard callus formation-> bone remodeling
Patches of fibrocartilage formed in the healing of a fracture are called______, whereas the bony collar formed around the fracture is called_____.
soft callus; hard callus
________affects more people than any other bone disease.
Osteoporosis