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Dimensions of Human Behavior Chapter 2
Dimensions of Human Behavior Person and Environment, 4th Edition - Hutchinson
Terms in this set (29)
An imaginary line of demarcation that defines which human and nonhuman elements are included in a given system and which elements are outside the system.
An approach that sees human behavior as the outcome of reciprocal interactions of persons operating within organized and integrated social systems.
A process by which information about past behaviors in a system are fed back into the system in a circular manner.
A set of usual behaviors of persons occupying a particular social position.
A theory that emphasizes systems processes that produce change, even sudden, rapid change.
An approach to human behavior that draws attention to conflict, dominance, and oppression in social life.
Theorists who argue that as a capitalism underwent change, people were more likely to be controlled by culture and their consumer role than by their work position.
pluralistic theory of social conflict
A theory that suggests that there is more than one social conflict going on at all times, that individuals often hold cross-cutting and overlapping memberships in status groups, and that these cross-cutting memberships prevent the development of solidarity among oppressed groups.
Theories that focus on processes by which individuals and collectivities can recognize patterns of inequality and take action to icrease their own power.
Theories that focus on male domination of the major social institutions and present a vision of just world based on gender equity.
rational choice perspective
An approach that sees human behavior as based in self-interest and rational choices about effective goal accomplishment.
social exchange theory
A theory in the rational choice perspective that sees human behavior as based on the desire to maximize benefits and minimize costs in social interactions.
social network theory
A developing theory in the rational choice perspective that focuses on the pattern of ties that link persons and collectivities.
Visual representations of the relations between social network members. Members of the network are represented by points, and lines drawn between pairs of points to demonstrate a relationship between them; also called a sociogram.
social constructionist perspective
An approach that focuses on how people learn, through their interactions with each other, to classify the world and their place in it.
An approach that focuses on how internal processes motivate human behavior.
An approach that focuses on how human behavior changes and stays the same across stages of the life cycle.
social behavioral perspective
An approach that sees human behavior as learned when individuals interact with their environment.
classical conditioning theory
A theory in the social behavioral perspective that sees behavior as the result of the association of a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus.
operant conditioning theory
A theory in the social behavioral perspective that sees behavior as the result of reinforcement.
cognitive social learning theory
A theory in the social behavioral perspective that sees behavior as learned by imitation and through cognitive process.
A sense of personal competence.
In cognitive social learning theory the expectation that one can personally accomplish a goal.
The capacity to intentionally make things happen.
In cognitive social learning theory a situation in which a person's prior experience with environmental forces that has led to low self-efficacy and efficacy expectation.
An approach that sees human behavior as based on freedom of action of the individual and focuses on the human search for meaning.
hierarchy of needs
Abraham Maslow's humanistic theory that suggests that higher needs cannot emerge until lower needs have been satisfied; the hierarchy runs from physiological needs at the bottom, to safety needs, belongingness and love needs, and esteem needs, with self-actualization needs at the top.
An approach to psychology that focuses on people's strengths and virtues and promotes optimal functioning of individuals and communities.
An individual's subjectively felt and interpreted experience of "who I am".